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- Question : 1E - Give one possible sample of size 4 from each of the following populations: a. All daily newspapers published in the United States b. All companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange c. All students at your college or university d. All grade point averages of students at your college or university
- Question : 2E - For each of the following hypothetical populations, give a plausible sample of size 4: a. All distances that might result when you throw a football b. Page lengths of books published 5 years from now c. All possible earthquake-strength measurements (Richter scale) that might be recorded in California during the next year d. All possible yields (in grams) from a certain chemical reaction carried out in a laboratory
- Question : 3E - Consider the population consisting of all DVD players of a certain brand and model, and focus on whether a DVD player needs service while under warranty. a. Pose several probability questions based on selecting a sample of 100 such DVD players. b. What inferential statistics question might be answered by determining the number of such DVD players in a sample of size 100 that need warranty service?
- Question : 4E - a. Give three different examples of concrete populations and three different examples of hypothetical populations. b. For one each of your concrete and your hypothetical populations, give an example of a probability question and an example of an inferential statistics question.
- Question : 5E - Many universities and colleges have instituted supplemental instruction (SI) programs, in which a student facilitator meets regularly with a small group of students enrolled in the course to promote discussion of course material and enhance subject mastery. Suppose that students in a large statistics course (what else?) are randomly divided into a control group that will not participate in SI and a treatment group that will participate. At the end of the term, each student
- Question : 6E - The California State University (CSU) system consists of 23 campuses, from San Diego State in the south to Humboldt State near the Oregon border. A CSU administrator wishes to make an inference about the average distance between the hometowns of students and their campuses. Describe and discuss several different sampling methods that might be employed.
- Question : 7E - A certain city divides naturally into ten district neighborhoods. A real estate appraiser would like to develop an equation to predict appraised value from characteristics such as age, size, number of bathrooms, distance to the nearest school, and so on. How might she select a sample of singlefamily homes that could be used as a basis for this analysis?
- Question : 8E - The amount of flow through a solenoid valve in an automobile
- Question : 9E - In a famous experiment carried out in 1882, Michelson and Newcomb obtained 66 observations on the time it took for light to travel between two locations in Washington, D.C. A few of the measurements (coded in a certain manner) were 31, 23, 32, 36, 22, 26, 27, and 31. a. Why are these measurements not identical? b. Does this study involve sampling an existing population or a conceptual population?
- Question : 10E - Consider the IQ data given in Example 1.2. a. Construct a stem-and-leaf display of the data. What appears to be a representative IQ value? Do the observations appear to be highly concentrated about the representative value or rather spread out? b. Does the display appear to be reasonably symmetric about a representative value, or would you describe its shape in some other way? c. Do there appear to be any outlying IQ values? d. What proportion of IQ values in this sample exceed 100?
- Question : 11E - Every score in the following batch of exam scores is in the 60
- Question : 12E - . The accompanying specific gravity values for various wood types used in construction appeared in the article
- Question : 13E - The accompanying data set consists of observations on shower-flow rate (L/min) for a sample of n
- Question : 14E - Do running times of American movies differ somehow from times of French movies? The authors investigated this question by randomly selecting 25 recent movies of each type, resulting in the following running times: Am: 94 90 95 93 128 95 125 91 104 116 162 102 90 110 92 113 116 90 97 103 95 120 109 91 138 Fr: 123 116 90 158 122 119 125 90 96 94 137 102 105 106 95 125 122 103 96 111 81 113 128 93 92 Construct a comparative stem-and-leaf display by listing stems in the middle of your paper and then placing the Am leaves out to the left and the Fr leaves out to the right. Then comment on interesting features of the display.
- Question : 15E - Temperature transducers of a certain type are shipped in batches of 50. A sample of 60 batches was selected, and the number of transducers in each batch not conforming to design specifications was determined, resulting in the following data:212401 32053313247023 042131 13412322845131 502321 06421603336123 a. Determine frequencies and relative frequencies for the observed values of x
- Question : 16E - In a study of author productivity (
- Question : 17E - The article
- Question : 18E - The article
- Question : 19E - The article cited in Exercise 18 also gave the following values of the variables y
- Question : 20E - How does the speed of a runner vary over the course of a marathon (a distance of 42.195 km)? Consider determining both the time to run the first 5 km and the time to run between the 35-km and 40-km points, and then subtracting the former time from the latter time. A positive value of this difference corresponds to a runner slowing down toward the end of the race. The accompanying histogram is based on times of runners who participated in several different Japanese marathons (
- Question : 21E - In a study of warp breakage during the weaving of fabric (Technometrics, 1982: 63), 100 specimens of yarn were tested. The number of cycles of strain to breakage was determined for each yarn specimen, resulting in the following data: 86 146 251 653 98 249 400 292 131 169 175 176 76 264 15 364 195 262 88 264 157 220 42 321 180 198 38 20 61 121 282 224 149 180 325 250 196 90 229 166 38 337 65 151 341 40 40 135 597 246 211 180 93 315 353 571 124 279 81 186 497 182 423 185 229 400 338 290 398 71 246 185 188 568 55 55 61 244 20 284 393 396 203 829 239 236 286 194 277 143 198 264 105 203 124 137 135 350 193 188 a. Construct a relative frequency histogram based on the class intervals 0
- Question : 22E - The accompanying data set consists of observations on shear strength (lb) of ultrasonic spot welds made on a type of alclad sheet. Construct a relative frequency histogram based on ten equalwidth classes with boundaries 4000, 4200, ... . [The histogram will agree with the one in
- Question : 23E - A transformation of data values by means of some mathematical function, such as ffiffi x p or 1/x, can often yield a set of numbers that has
- Question : 24E - . Unlike most packaged food products, alcohol beverage container labels are not required to show calorie or nutrient content. The article
- Question : 25E - The article
- Question : 26E - Consider the following data on type of health complaint (J
- Question : 27E - A Pareto diagram is a variation of a histogram for categorical data resulting from a quality control study. Each category represents a different type of product nonconformity or production problem. The categories are ordered so that the one with the largest frequency appears on the far left, then the category with the second largest frequency, and so on. Suppose the following information on nonconformities in circuit packs is obtained: failed component, 126; incorrect component, 210; insufficient solder, 67; excess solder, 54; missing component, 131. Construct a Pareto diagram.
- Question : 28E - The cumulative frequency and cumulative relative frequency for a particular class interval are the sum of frequencies and relative frequencies, respectively, for that interval and all intervals lying below it. If, for example, there are four intervals with frequencies 9, 16, 13, and 12, then the cumulative frequencies are 9, 25, 38, and 50, and the cumulative relative frequencies are .18, .50, .76, and 1.00. Compute the cumulative frequencies and cumulative relative frequencies for the data of Exercise 22.
- Question : 29E - . Fire load (MJ/m2 ) is the heat energy that could be released per square meter of floor area by combustion of contents and the structure itself. The article
- Question : 30E - The May 1, 2009 issue of The Montclarion reported the following home sale amounts for a sample of homes in Alameda, CA that were sold the previous month (1000s of $): 590 815 575 608 350 1285 408 540 555 679 a. Calculate and interpret the sample mean and median. b. Suppose the 6th observation had been 985 rather than 1285. How would the mean and median change? c. Calculate a 20% trimmed mean by first trimming the two smallest and two largest observations. d. Calculate a 15% trimmed mean
- Question : 31E - In Superbowl XXXVII, Michael Pittman of Tampa Bay rushed (ran with the football) 17 times on first down, and the results were the following gains in yards: 23 1 4 1 6 5 9 6 2 1 3 2 0 2 24 1 1 a. Determine the value of the sample mean. b. Determine the value of the sample median. Why is it so different from the mean? c. Calculate a trimmed mean by deleting the smallest and largest observations. What is the corresponding trimming percentage? How does the value of this xtr compare to the mean and median?
- Question : 32E - The minimum injection pressure (psi) for injection molding specimens of high amylose corn was determined for eight different specimens (higher pressure corresponds to greater processing difficulty), resulting in the following observations (from
- Question : 33E - A sample of 26 offshore oil workers took part in a simulated escape exercise, resulting in the accompanying data on time (sec) to complete the escape (
- Question : 34E - The article
- Question : 35E - Blood pressure values are often reported to the nearest 5 mmHg (100, 105, 110, etc.). Suppose the actual blood pressure values for nine randomly selected individuals are 118.6 127.4 138.4 130.0 113.7 122.0 108.3 131.5 133.2 a. What is the median of the reported blood pressure values? b. Suppose the blood pressure of the second individual is 127.6 rather than 127.4 (a small change in a single value). How does this affect the median of the reported values? What does this say about the sensitivity of the median to rounding or grouping in the data?
- Question : 36E - The propagation of fatigue cracks in various aircraft parts has been the subject of extensive study in recent years. The accompanying data consists of propagation lives (flight hours/104 ) to reach a given crack size in fastener holes intended for use in military aircraft (
- Question : 37E - Compute the sample median, 25% trimmed mean, 10% trimmed mean, and sample mean for the microdrill data given in Exercise 25, and compare these measures.
- Question : 38E - A sample of n
- Question : 39E - a. If a constant c is added to each xi in a sample, yielding yi
- Question : 40E - An experiment to study the lifetime (in hours) for a certain type of component involved putting ten components into operation and observing them for 100 hours. Eight of the components failed during that period, and those lifetimes were recorded. Denote the lifetimes of the two components still functioning after 100 hours by 100+. The resulting sample observations were 48 79 100+ 35 92 86 57 100+ 17 29 Which of the measures of center discussed in this section can be calculated, and what are the values of those measures? [Note: The data from this experiment is said to be
- Question : 41E - The article
- Question : 42E - The value of Young
- Question : 43E - The accompanying observations on stabilized viscosity (cP) for specimens of a certain grade of asphalt with 18% rubber added are from the article
- Question : 44E - Calculate and interpret the values of the sample median, sample mean, and sample standard deviation for the following observations on fracture strength (MPa, read from a graph in
- Question : 45E - Exercise 33 in Section 1.3 presented a sample of 26 escape times for oil workers in a simulated escape exercise. Calculate and interpret the sample standard deviation. [Hint: Pxi
- Question : 46E - A study of the relationship between age and various visual functions (such as acuity and depth perception) reported the following observations on area of scleral lamina (mm2 ) from human optic nerve heads (
- Question : 47E - In 1997 a woman sued a computer keyboard manufacturer, charging that her repetitive stress injuries were caused by the keyboard (Genessy v. Digital Equipment Corp.). The jury awarded about $3.5 million for pain and suffering, but the court then set aside that award as being unreasonable compensation. In making this determination, the court identified a
- Question : 48E - The article
- Question : 49E - The first four deviations from the mean in a sample of n
- Question : 50E - Reconsider the data on area of scleral lamina given in Exercise 46. a. Determine the lower and upper fourths. b. Calculate the value of the fourth spread. c. If the two largest sample values, 4.33 and 4.52, had instead been 5.33 and 5.52, how would this affect fs? Explain. d. By how much could the observation 2.34 be increased without affecting fs? Explain. e. If an 18th observation, x18
- Question : 51E - Reconsider these values of rushing yardage from Exercise 31 of this chapter: 23 1 4 1 6 5 9 6 2 1 3 2 0 2 24 1 1 a. What are the values of the fourths, and what is the value of fs? b. Construct a boxplot based on the five-number summary, and comment on its features. c. How large or small does an observation have to be to qualify as an outlier? As an extreme outlier? d. By how much could the largest observation be decreased without affecting fs?
- Question : 52E - . Here is a stem-and-leaf display of the escape time data introduced in Exercise 33 of this chapter. 32 55 33 49 34 35 6699 36 34469 37 03345 38 9 39 2347 40 23 41 42 4 a. Determine the value of the fourth spread. b. Are there any outliers in the sample? Any extreme outliers? c. Construct a boxplot and comment on its features. d. By how much could the largest observation, currently 424, be decreased without affecting the value of the fourth spread?
- Question : 53E - Many people who believe they may be suffering from the flu visit emergency rooms, where they are subjected to long waits and may expose others or themselves be exposed to various diseases. The article
- Question : 54E - Here is summary information on the alcohol percentage for a sample of 25 beers: lower fourth
- Question : 55E - A company utilizes two different machines to manufacture parts of a certain type. During a single shift, a sample of n
- Question : 56E - Blood cocaine concentration (mg/L) was determined both for a sample of individuals who had died from cocaine-induced excited delirium (ED) and for a sample of those who had died from a cocaine overdose without excited delirium; survival time for people in both groups was at most 6 h. The accompanying data was read from a comparative boxplot in the article
- Question : 57E - At the beginning of the 2007 baseball season each American League team had nine starting position players (this includes the designated hitter but not the pitcher). Here are the salaries for the New York Yankees and the Cleveland Indians in thousands of dollars: Yankees: 12000 600 491 22709 21600 13000 13000 15000 23429 Indians: 3200 3750 396 383 1000 3750 917 3000 4050 Construct a comparative boxplot and comment on interesting features. Compare the salaries of the two teams. The Indians won more games than the Yankees in the regular season and defeated the Yankees in the playoffs.
- Question : 58E - The comparative boxplot below of gasoline vapor coefficients for vehicles in Detroit appeared in the article
- Question : 59E - Let x1, ... , xn be a sample and let a and b be constants. If yi
- Question : 60SE - Consider the following information from a sample of four Wolferman
- Question : 61SE - Three different C2F6 flow rates (SCCM) were considered in an experiment to investigate the effect of flow rate on the uniformity (%) of the etch on a silicon wafer used in the manufacture of integrated circuits, resulting in the following data: Flow rate 125 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.8 4.6 160 3.6 4.2 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.0 200 2.9 3.4 3.5 4.1 4.6 5.1 Compare and contrast the uniformity observations resulting from these three different flow rates.
- Question : 62SE - The amount of radiation received at a greenhouse plays an important role in determining the rate of photosynthesis. The accompanying observations on incoming solar radiation were read from a graph in the article
- Question : 63SE - The following data on HC and CO emissions for one particular vehicle was given in the chapter introduction. HC (g/mile) 13.8 18.3 32.2 32.5 CO (g/mile) 118 149 232 236 a. Compute the sample standard deviations for the HC and CO observations. Does the widespread belief appear to be justified? b. The sample coefficient of variation s=x (or 100 s=x) assesses the extent of variability relative to the mean. Values of this coefficient for several different data sets can be compared to determine which data sets exhibit more or less variation. Carry out such a comparison for the given data.
- Question : 64SE - A sample of 77 individuals working at a particular office was selected and the noise level (dBA) experienced by each one was determined, yielding the following data (
- Question : 65SE - . Fifteen air samples from a certain region were obtained, and for each one the carbon monoxide concentration was determined. The results (in ppm) were 9.3 10.7 8.5 9.6 12.2 15.6 9.2 10.5 9.0 13.2 11.0 8.8 13.7 12.1 9.8 Using the interpolation method suggested in Section 1.3, compute the 10% trimmed mean.
- Question : 66SE - a. For what value of c is the quantity P
- Question : 67SE - a. Let a and b be constants and let yi
- Question : 68SE - Elevated energy consumption during exercise continues after the workout ends. Because calories burned after exercise contribute to weight loss and have other consequences, it is important to understand this process. The paper
- Question : 69SE - Anxiety disorders and symptoms can often be effectively treated with benzodiazepine medications. It is known that animals exposed to stress exhibit a decrease in benzodiazepine receptor binding in the frontal cortex. The paper
- Question : 70SE - The article
- Question : 71SE - The mode of a numerical data set is the value that occurs most frequently in the set. a. Determine the mode for the cadence data given in Exercise 70. b. For a categorical sample, how would you define the modal category?
- Question : 72SE - Specimens of three different types of rope wire were selected, and the fatigue limit (MPa) was determined for each specimen, resulting in the accompanying data. Type 1 350 350 350 358 370 370 370 371 371 372 372 384 391 391 392 Type 2 350 354 359 363 365 368 369 371 373 374 376 380 383 388 392 Type 3 350 361 362 364 364 365 366 371 377 377 377 379 380 380 392 a. Construct a comparative boxplot, and comment on similarities and differences. b. Construct a comparative dotplot (a dotplot for each sample with a common scale). Comment on similarities and differences. c. Does the comparative boxplot of part (a) give an informative assessment of similarities and differences? Explain your reasoning.
- Question : 73SE - . The three measures of center introduced in this chapter are the mean, median, and trimmed mean. Two additional measures of center that are occasionally used are the midrange, which is the average of the smallest and largest observations, and the midfourth, which is the average of the two fourths. Which of these five measures of center are resistant to the effects of outliers and which are not? Explain your reasoning.
- Question : 74SE - The authors of the article
- Question : 75SE - Consider a sample x1, x2, ... , xn and suppose that the values of x, s 2 , and s have been calculated. a. Let yi
- Question : 76SE - Let xn and s2 n denote the sample mean and variance for the sample x1, ... , xn and let xn
- Question : 77SE - Lengths of bus routes for any particular transit system will typically vary from one route to another. The article
- Question : 78SE - A study carried out to investigate the distribution of total braking time (reaction time plus acceleratorto-brake movement time, in msec) during real driving conditions at 60 km/h gave the following summary information on the distribution of times (
- Question : 79SE - The sample data x1, x2, ... , xn sometimes represents a time series, where xt
- Question : 80SE - Consider numerical observations x1, ... , xn. It is frequently of interest to know whether the xt

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