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- Question : 1ES - Give one possible sample of size 4 from each of the following populations: a. All daily newspapers published in the United States b. All companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange c. All students at your college or university d. All grade point averages of students at your college or university
- Question : 2ES - For each of the following hypothetical populations, give a plausible sample of size 4: a. All distances that might result when you throw a football b. Page lengths of books published 5 years from now c. All possible earthquake-strength measurements (Richter scale) that might be recorded in California during the next year d. All possible yields (in grams) from a certain chemical reaction carried out in a laboratory
- Question : 3ES - Consider the population consisting of all computers of a certain brand and model, and focus on whether a computer needs service while under warranty. a. Pose several probability questions based on selecting a sample of 100 such computers. b. What inferential statistics question might be answered by determining the number of such computers in a sample of size 100 that need warranty service?
- Question : 4ES - a. Give three different examples of concrete populations and three different examples of hypothetical populations. b. For one each of your concrete and your hypothetical populations, give an example of a probability question and an example of an inferential statistics question.
- Question : 5ES - Many universities and colleges have instituted supplemental instruction (SI) programs, in which a student facilitator meets regularly with a small group of students enrolled in the course to promote discussion of course material and enhance subject mastery. Suppose that students in a large statistics course (what else?) are randomly divided into a control group that will not participate in SI and a treatment group that will participate. At the end of the term, each student
- Question : 6ES - The California State University (CSU) system consists of 23 campuses, from San Diego State in the south to Humboldt State near the Oregon border. A CSU administrator wishes to make an inference about the average distance between the hometowns of students and their campuses. Describe and discuss several different sampling methods that might be employed. Would this be an enumerative or an analytic study? Explain your reasoning.
- Question : 7ES - A certain city divides naturally into ten district neighborhoods. How might a real estate appraiser select a sample of single-family homes that could be used as a basis for developing an equation to predict appraised value from characteristics such as age, size, number of bathrooms, distance to the nearest school, and so on? Is the study enumerative or analytic?
- Question : 8ES - The amount of flow through a solenoid valve in an automobile
- Question : 9ES - In a famous experiment carried out in 1882, Michelson and Newcomb obtained 66 observations on the time it took for light to travel between two locations in Washington, D.C. A few of the measurements (coded in a certain manner) were 31, 23, 32, 36, 22, 26, 27, and 31. a. Why are these measurements not identical? b. Is this an enumerative study? Why or why not?
- Question : 10ES - Consider the strength data for beams given in Example 1.2. a. Construct a stem-and-leaf display of the data. What app ears to be a representative strength value? Do the observations appear to be highly concentrated about the representative value or rather spread out? b. Does the display appear to be reasonably symmetric about a representative value, or would you describe its shape in some other way? c. Do there appear to be any outlying strength values? d. What proportion of strength observations in this sample exceed 10 MPa?
- Question : 11ES - The accompanying specific gravity values for various wood types used in construction appeared in the article
- Question : 12ES - The accompanying summary data on CeO2 particle sizes (nm) under certain experimental conditions was read from a graph in the article
- Question : 13ES - Allowable mechanical properties for structural design of metallic aerospace vehicles requires an approved method for statistically analyzing empirical test data. The article
- Question : 14ES - The accompanying data set consists of observations on shower-flow rate (L/min) for a sample of n 5 129 houses in Perth, Australia (
- Question : 15ES - Do running times of American movies differ somehow from running times of French movies? The author investigated this question by randomly selecting 25 recent movies of each type, resulting in the following running times: Am: 94 90 95 93 128 95 125 91 104 116 162 102 90 110 92 113 116 90 97 103 95 120 109 91 138 Fr: 123 116 90 158 122 119 125 90 96 94 137 102 105 106 95 125 122 103 96 111 81 113 128 93 92 Construct a comparative stem-and-leaf display by listing stems in the middle of your paper and then placing the Am leaves out to the left and the Fr leaves out to the right. Then comment on interesting features of the display.
- Question : 16ES - The article cited in Example 1.2 also gave the accompanying strength observations for cylinders: 6.1 5.8 7.8 7.1 7.2 9.2 6.6 8.3 7.0 8.3 7.8 8.1 7.4 8.5 8.9 9.8 9.7 14.1 12.6 11.2 a. Construct a comparative stem-and-leaf display (see the previous exercise) of the beam and cylinder data, and then answer the questions in parts (b)
- Question : 17ES - The accompanying data came from a study of collusion in bidding within the construction industry (
- Question : 18ES - Every corporation has a governing board of directors. The number of individuals on a board varies from one corporation to another. One of the authors of the article
- Question : 19ES - The number of contaminating particles on a silicon wafer prior to a certain rinsing process was determined for each wafer in a sample of size 100, resulting in the following frequencies: Number of particles 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency 1 2 3 12 11 15 18 10 Number of particles 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Frequency 12 4 5 3 1 2 1 a. What proportion of the sampled wafers had at least one particle? At least five particles? b. What proportion of the sampled wafers had between five and ten particles, inclusive? Strictly between five and ten particles? c. Draw a histogram using relative frequency on the vertical axis. How would you describe the shape of the histogram?
- Question : 20ES - The article
- Question : 21ES - The article cited in Exercise 20 also gave the following values of the variables y 5 number of culs-de-sac and z 5 number of intersections: y 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 z 1 8 6 1 1 5 3 0 0 4 4 0 0 1 2 1 4 0 4 y 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 z 0 3 0 1 1 0 1 3 2 4 6 6 0 1 1 8 3 3 5 y 1 5 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 z 0 5 2 3 1 0 0 0 3 a. Construct a histogram for the y data. What proportion of these subdivisions had no culs-de-sac? At least one cul-de-sac? b. Construct a histogram for the z data. What proportion of these subdivisions had at most five intersections? Fewer than five intersections?
- Question : 22ES - How does the speed of a runner vary over the course of a marathon (a distance of 42.195 km)? Consider determining both the time to run the first 5 km and the time to run between the 35-km and 40-km points, and then subtracting the former time from the latter time. A positive value of this difference corresponds to a runner slowing down toward the end of the race. The accompanying histogram is based on times of runners who participated in several different Japanese marathons (
- Question : 23ES - The article
- Question : 24ES - The accompanying data set consists of observations on shear strength (lb) of ultrasonic spot welds made on a certain type of alclad sheet. Construct a relative frequency histogram based on ten equal-width classes with boundaries 4000, 4200,
- Question : 25ES - A transformation of data values by means of some mathe matical function, such as
- Question : 26ES - Automated electron backscattered diffraction is now being used in the study of fracture phenomena. The following information on misorientation angle (degrees) was extracted from the article
- Question : 27ES - The article
- Question : 28ES - The accompanying frequency distribution on deposited energy (mJ) was extracted from the article
- Question : 29ES - The following categories for type of physical activity involved when an industrial accident occurred appeared in the article
- Question : 30ES - A Pareto diagram is a variation of a histogram for categorical data resulting from a quality control study. Each category represents a different type of product nonconformity or production problem. The categories are ordered so that the one with the largest frequency appears on the far left, then the category with the second largest frequency, and so on. Suppose the following information on nonconformities in circuit packs is obtained: failed component, 126; incorrect component, 210; insufficient solder, 67; excess solder, 54; missing component, 131. Construct a Pareto diagram.
- Question : 31ES - The cumulative frequency and cumulative relative frequency for a particular class interval are the sum of frequencies and relative frequencies, respectively, for that interval and all intervals lying below it. If, for example, there are four intervals with frequencies 9, 16, 13, and 12, then the cumulative frequencies are 9, 25, 38, and 50, and the cumulative relative frequencies are .18, .50, .76, and 1.00. Compute the cumulative frequencies and cumulative relative frequencies for the data of Exercise 24.
- Question : 32ES - Fire load (MJ/m2) is the heat energy that could be released per square meter of floor area by combustion of contents and the structure itself. The article
- Question : 33ES - The May 1, 2009, issue of The Montclarian reported the following home sale amounts for a sample of homes in Alameda, CA that were sold the previous month (1000s of $): 590 815 575 608 350 1285 408 540 555 679 a. Calculate and interpret the sample mean and median. b. Suppose the 6th observation had been 985 rather than 1285. How would the mean and median change? c. Calculate a 20% trimmed mean by first trimming the two smallest and two largest observations. d. Calculate a 15% trimmed mean.
- Question : 34ES - Exposure to microbial products, especially endotoxin, may have an impact on vulnerability to allergic diseases. The article
- Question : 35ES - Mercury is a persistent and dispersive environmental contaminant found in many ecosystems around the world. When released as an industrial by-product, it often finds its way into aquatic systems where it can have deleterious effects on various avian and aquatic species. The accompanying data on blood mercury concentration (mg/g) for adult females near contaminated rivers in Virginia was read from a graph in the article
- Question : 36ES - A sample of 26 offshore oil workers took part in a simulated escape exercise, resulting in the accompanying data on time (sec) to complete the escape (
- Question : 37ES - The article
- Question : 38ES - Blood pressure values are often reported to the nearest 5 mmHg (100, 105, 110, etc.). Suppose the actual blood pressure values for nine randomly selected individuals are 118.6 127.4 138.4 130.0 113.7 122.0 108.3 131.5 133.2 a. What is the median of the reported blood pressure values? b. Suppose the blood pressure of the second individual is 127.6 rather than 127.4 (a small change in a single value). How does this affect the median of the reported values? What does this say about the sensitivity of the median to rounding or grouping in the data?
- Question : 39ES - The propagation of fatigue cracks in various aircraft parts has been the subject of extensive study in recent years. The accompanying data consists of propagation lives (flight hours/104) to reach a given crack size in fastener holes intended for use in military aircraft (
- Question : 40ES - Compute the sample median, 25% trimmed mean, 10% trimmed mean, and sample mean for the lifetime data given in Exercise 27, and compare these measures.
- Question : 41ES - A sample of n 5 10 automobiles was selected, and each was subjected to a 5-mph crash test. Denoting a car with no visible damage by S (for success) and a car with such damage by F, results were as follows: S S F S S S F F S S a. What is the value of the sample proportion of successes x/n? b. Replace each S with a 1 and each F with a 0. Then calculate x for this numerically coded sample. How does x compare to x/n? c. Suppose it is decided to include 15 more cars in the experiment. How many of these would have to be S
- Question : 42ES - a. If a constant c is added to each xi in a sample, yielding yi 5 xi 1 c, how do the sample mean and median of the yis relate to the mean and median of the xis? Verify your conjectures. b. If each xi is multiplied by a constant c, yielding yi 5 cxi, answer the question of part (a). Again, verify your conjectures.
- Question : 43ES - An experiment to study the lifetime (in hours) for a certain type of component involved putting ten components into operation and observing them for 100 hours. Eight of the components failed during that period, and those lifetimes were recorded. Denote the lifetimes of the two components still functioning after 100 hours by 1001. The resulting sample observations were 48 79 1001 35 92 86 57 1001 17 29 Which of the measures of center discussed in this section can be calculated, and what are the values of those measures? [Note: The data from this experiment is said to be
- Question : 44ES - Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a semicrystalline polymer that is fully biodegradable and biocompatible, is obtained from renewable resources. From a sustainability perspective, PHB offers many attractive properties though it is more expensive to produce than standard plastics. The accompanying data on melting point (
- Question : 45ES - The value of Young
- Question : 46ES - The article
- Question : 47ES - Zinfandel is a popular red wine varietal produced almost exclusively in California. It is rather controversial among wine connoisseurs because its alcohol content varies quite substantially from one producer to another. In May 2013, the author went to the website klwines .com, randomly selected 10 zinfandels from among the 325 available, and obtained the following values of alcohol content (%): 14.8 14.5 16.1 14.2 15.9 13.7 16.2 14.6 13.8 15.0 a. Calculate and interpret several measures of center. b. Calculate the sample variance using the defining formula. c. Calculate the sample variance using the shortcut formula after subtracting 13 from each observation.
- Question : 48ES - Exercise 34 presented the following data on endotoxin concentration in settled dust both for a sample of urban homes and for a sample of farm homes: U: 6.0 5.0 11.0 33.0 4.0 5.0 80.0 18.0 35.0 17.0 23.0 F: 4.0 14.0 11.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 4.0 20.0 5.0 8.9 21.0 9.2 3.0 2.0 0.3 a. Determine the value of the sample standard deviation for each sample, interpret these values, and then contrast variability in the two samples. [Hint: oxi 5 237.0 for the urban sample and 5 128.4 for the farm sample, and oxi 2 5 10,079 for the urban sample and 1617.94 for the farm sample.] b. Compute the fourth spread for each sample and compare. Do the fourth spreads convey the same message about variability that the standard deviations do? Explain. c. The authors of the cited article also provided endotoxin concentrations in dust bag dust: U: 34.0 49.0 13.0 33.0 24.0 24.0 35.0 104.0 34.0 40.0 38.0 1.0 F: 2.0 64.0 6.0 17.0 35.0 11.0 17.0 13.0 5.0 27.0 23.0 28.0 10.0 13.0 0.2 Construct a comparative boxplot (as did the cited paper) and compare and contrast the four samples.
- Question : 49ES - A study of the relationship between age and various visual functions (such as acuity and depth perception) reported the following observations on the area of scleral lamina (mm2) from human optic nerve heads (
- Question : 50ES - In 1997 a woman sued a computer keyboard manufacturer, charging that her repetitive stress injuries were caused by the keyboard (Genessy v. Digital Equipment Corp.). The injury awarded about $3.5 million for pain and suffering, but the court then set aside that award as being unreasonable compensation. In making this determination, the court identified a
- Question : 51ES - The article
- Question : 52ES - The first four deviations from the mean in a sample of n 5 5 reaction times were .3, .9, 1.0, and 1.3. What is the fifth deviation from the mean? Give a sample for which these are the five deviations from the mean.
- Question : 53ES - A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment scheme that pools money from many investors and invests in a variety of securities. Growth funds focus primarily on increasing the value of investments, whereas blended funds seek a balance between current income and growth. Here is data on the expense ratio (expenses as a % of assets, from www .morningstar.com) for samples of 20 large-cap balanced funds and 20 large-cap growth funds (
- Question : 54ES - Grip is applied to produce normal surface forces that compress the object being gripped. Examples include two people shaking hands, or a nurse squeezing a patient
- Question : 55ES - Here is a stem-and-leaf display of the escape time data introduced in Exercise 36 of this chapter. a. Determine the value of the fourth spread. b. Are there any outliers in the sample? Any extreme outliers? c. Construct a boxplot and comment on its features. d. By how much could the largest observation, currently 424, be decreased without affecting the value of the fourth spread?
- Question : 56ES - The following data on distilled alcohol content (%) for a sample of 35 port wines was extracted from the article
- Question : 57ES - A sample of 20 glass bottles of a particular type was selected, and the internal pressure strength of each bottle was determined. Consider the following partial sample information: median 5 202.2 lower fourth 5 196.0 upper fourth 5 216.8 Three smallest observations 125.8 188.1 193.7 Three largest observations 221.3 230.5 250.2 a. Are there any outliers in the sample? Any extreme outliers? b. Construct a boxplot that shows outliers, and comment on any interesting features.
- Question : 58ES - A company utilizes two different machines to manufacture parts of a certain type. During a single shift, a sample of n 5 20 parts produced by each machine is obtained, and the value of a particular critical dimension for each part is determined. The comparative boxplot at the bottom of this page is constructed from the resulting data. Compare and contrast the two samples.
- Question : 59ES - Blood cocaine concentration (mg/L) was determined both for a sample of individuals who had died from cocaine-induced excited delirium (ED) and for a sample of those who had died from a cocaine overdose without excited delirium; survival time for people in both groups was at most 6 hours. The accompanying data was read from a comparative boxplot in the article
- Question : 60ES - Observations on burst strength (lb/in2) were obtained both for test nozzle closure welds and for production cannister nozzle welds (
- Question : 61ES - The accompanying comparative boxplot of gasoline vapor coefficients for vehicles in Detroit appeared in the article
- Question : 62SE - Consider the following information on ultimate tensile strength (lb/in) for a sample of n 5 4 hard zirconium copper wire specimens (from
- Question : 63SE - A sample of 77 individuals working at a particular office was selected and the noise level (dBA) experienced by each individual was determined, yielding the following data (
- Question : 64SE - Fretting is a wear process that results from tangential oscillatory movements of small amplitude in machine parts. The article
- Question : 65SE - The accompanying frequency distribution of fracture strength (MPa) observations for ceramic bars fired in a particular kiln appeared in the article
- Question : 66SE - A deficiency of the trace element selenium in the diet can negatively impact growth, immunity, muscle and neuromuscular function, and fertility. The introduction of selenium supplements to dairy cows is justified when pastures have low selenium levels. Authors of the article
- Question : 67SE - Aortic stenosis refers to a narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart. The article
- Question : 68SE - a. For what value of c is the quantity o(xi 2 c)2 minimized? [Hint: Take the derivative with respect to c, set equal to 0, and solve.] b. Using the result of part (a), which of the two quantities o(xi 2 x)2 and o(xi 2 m)2 will be smaller than the other (assuming that x
- Question : 69SE - a. Let a and b be constants and let yi 5 axi 1 b for i 5 1, 2, . . . , n. What are the relationships between x and y and between sx 2 and sy 2? b. A sample of temperatures for initiating a certain chemical reaction yielded a sample average (
- Question : 70SE - Elevated energy consumption during exercise continues after the workout ends. Because calories burned after exercise contribute to weight loss and have other consequences, it is important to understand this process. The article
- Question : 71SE - Here is a description from Minitab of the strength data given in Exercise 13. Variable N Mean Median TrMean StDev SE Mean strength 153 135.39 135.40 135.41 4.59 0.37 Variable Minimum Maximum Q1 Q3 strength 122.20 147.70 132.95 138.25 a. Comment on any interesting features (the quartiles and fourths are virtually identical here). b. Construct a boxplot of the data based on the quartiles, and comment on what you see.
- Question : 72SE - Anxiety disorders and symptoms can often be effectively treated with benzodiazepine medications. It is known that animals exposed to stress exhibit a decrease in benzodiazepine receptor binding in the frontal cortex. The article
- Question : 73SE - The article
- Question : 74SE - The mode of a numerical data set is the value that occurs most frequently in the set. a. Determine the mode for the cadence data given in Exercise 73. b. For a categorical sample, how would you define the modal category?
- Question : 75SE - Specimens of three different types of rope wire were selected, and the fatigue limit (MPa) was determined for each specimen, resulting in the accompanying data. Type 1 350 350 350 358 370 370 370 371 371 372 372 384 391 391 392 Type 2 350 354 359 363 365 368 369 371 373 374 376 380 383 388 392 Type 3 350 361 362 364 364 365 366 371 377 377 377 379 380 380 392 a. Construct a comparative boxplot, and comment on similarities and differences. b. Construct a comparative dotplot (a dotplot for each sample with a common scale). Comment on similarities and differences. c. Does the comparative boxplot of part (a) give an informative assessment of similarities and differences? Explain your reasoning.
- Question : 76ES - The three measures of center introduced in this chapter are the mean, median, and trimmed mean. Two additional measures of center that are occasionally used are the midrange, which is the average of the smallest and largest observations, and the midfourth, which is the average of the two fourths. Which of these five measures of center are resistant to the effects of outliers and which are not? Explain your reasoning.
- Question : 77SE - The authors of the article
- Question : 78SE - Consider a sample x1, x2,
- Question : 79SE - Let xn and sn 2 denote the sample mean and variance for the sample x1,
- Question : 80SE - Lengths of bus routes for any particular transit system will typically vary from one route to another. The article
- Question : 81SE - A study carried out to investigate the distribution of total braking time (reaction time plus accelerator-to-brake movement time, in ms) during real driving conditions at 60 km/ hr gave the following summary information on the distribution of times (
- Question : 82SE - The sample data x1, x2,
- Question : 83SE - Consider numerical observations x1,
- Question : 84SE - Consider a sample x1,

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