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- Question : 1P - Sketch the atomic structure of copper and discuss why it is a good conductor and how its structure is different from that of germanium, silicon, and gallium arsenide.
- Question : 2P - In your own words, define an intrinsic material, a negative temperature coefficient, and covalent bonding.
- Question : 3P - Consult your reference library and list three materials that have a negative temperature coefficient and three that have a positive temperature coefficient.
- Question : 4P - a. How much energy in joules is required to move a charge of 12 mC through a difference in potential of 6 V? b. For part (a), find the energy in electron-volts
- Question : 5P - If 48 eV of energy is required to move a charge through a potential difference of 3.2 V, determine the charge involved.
- Question : 6P - Consult your reference library and determine the level of Eg for GaP, ZnS, and GaAsP, three semiconductor materials of practical value. In addition, determine the written name for each material.
- Question : 7P - Describe the difference between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials.
- Question : 8P - Describe the difference between donor and acceptor impurities.
- Question : 9P - Describe the difference between majority and minority carriers.
- Question : 10P - Sketch the atomic structure of silicon and insert an impurity of arsenic as demonstrated for silicon in Fig. 7.
- Question : 11P - Repeat Problem 10, but insert an impurity of indium
- Question : 12P - Consult your reference library and find another explanation of hole versus electron flow. Using both descriptions, describe in your own words the process of hole conduction.
- Question : 13P - Describe in your own words the conditions established by forward- and reverse-bias conditions on a p
- Question : 14P - Describe how you will remember the forward- and reverse-bias states of the p
- Question : 15P - a. Determine the thermal voltage for a diode at a temperature of 20
- Question : 16P - Repeat Problem 15 for T 5 100
- Question : 17P - a. Using Eq. (2), determine the diode current at 20
- Question : 18P - Given a diode current of 8 mA and n 5 1, find Is if the applied voltage is 0.5 V and the temperature is room temperature (25
- Question : 19P - Given a diode current of 6 mA, VT 5 26 mV, n 5 1, and Is 5 1 nA, find the applied voltage VD.
- Question : 20P - a. Plot the function y = ex for x from 0 to 10. Why is it difficult to plot? b. What is the value of y = ex at x 5 0? c. Based on the results of part (b), why is the factor 21 important in Eq. (2)?
- Question : 21P - In the reverse-bias region the saturation current of a silicon diode is about 0.1 mA (T 5 20
- Question : 22P - Compare the characteristics of a silicon and a germanium diode and determine which you would prefer to use for most practical applications. Give some details. Refer to a manufacturer
- Question : 23P - Determine the forward voltage drop across the diode whose characteristics appear in Fig. 19 at temperatures of 275
- Question : 24P - Describe in your own words the meaning of the word ideal as applied to a device or a system.
- Question : 25P - Describe in your own words the characteristics of the ideal diode and how they determine the on and off states of the device. That is, describe why the short-circuit and open-circuit equivalents are appropriate.
- Question : 26P - What is the one important difference between the characteristics of a simple switch and those of an ideal diode?
- Question : 27P - Determine the static or dc resistance of the commercially available diode of Fig. 15 at a forward current of 4 mA.
- Question : 28P - Repeat Problem 27 at a forward current of 15 mA and compare results
- Question : 29P - Determine the static or dc resistance of the commercially available diode of Fig. 15 at a reverse voltage of 210 V. How does it compare to the value determined at a reverse voltage of 230 V?
- Question : 30P - Calculate the dc and ac resistances for the diode of Fig. 15 at a forward current of 10 mA and compare their magnitudes.
- Question : 31P - a. Determine the dynamic (ac) resistance of the commercially available diode of Fig. 15 at a forward current of 10 mA using Eq. (5). b. Determine the dynamic (ac) resistance of the diode of Fig. 15 at a forward current of 10 mA using Eq. (6). c. Compare solutions of parts (a) and (b)
- Question : 32P - Using Eq. (5), determine the ac resistance at a current of 1 mA and 15 mA for the diode of Fig. 15. Compare the solutions and develop a general conclusion regarding the ac resistance and increasing levels of diode current.
- Question : 33P - Using Eq. (6), determine the ac resistance at a current of 1 mA and 15 mA for the diode of Fig. 15. Modify the equation as necessary for low levels of diode current. Compare to the solutions obtained in Problem 32.
- Question : 34P - Determine the average ac resistance for the diode of Fig. 15 for the region between 0.6 V and 0.9 V.
- Question : 35P - Determine the ac resistance for the diode of Fig. 15 at 0.75 V and compare it to the average ac resistance obtained in Problem 34.
- Question : 36P - Find the piecewise-linear equivalent circuit for the diode of Fig. 15. Use a straight-line segment that intersects the horizontal axis at 0.7 V and best approximates the curve for the region greater than 0.7 V.
- Question : 37P - Repeat Problem 36 for the diode of Fig. 27.
- Question : 38P - Find the piecewise-linear equivalent circuit for the germanium and gallium arsenide diodes of Fig. 18.
- Question : 39P - a. Referring to Fig. 33, determine the transition capacitance at reverse-bias potentials of 225 V and 210 V. What is the ratio of the change in capacitance to the change in voltage? b. Repeat part (a) for reverse-bias potentials of 210 V and 21 V. Determine the ratio of the change in capacitance to the change in voltage. c. How do the ratios determined in parts (a) and (b) compare? What does this tell you about which range may have more areas of practical application?
- Question : 40P - Referring to Fig. 33, determine the diffusion capacitance at 0 V and 0.25 V.
- Question : 41P - Describe in your own words how diffusion and transition capacitances differ.
- Question : 42P - Determine the reactance offered by a diode described by the characteristics of Fig. 33 at a forward potential of 0.2 V and a reverse potential of 220 V if the applied frequency is 6 MHz.
- Question : 43P - The no-bias transition capacitance of a silicon diode is 8 pF with VK 5 0.7 V and n 5 1>2. What is the transition capacitance if the applied reverse bias potential is 5 V?
- Question : 44P - Find the applied reverse bias potential if the transition capacitance of a silicon diode is 4 pF but the no-bias level is 10 pF with n 5 1>3 and VK 5 0.7 V.
- Question : 45P - Sketch the waveform for i of the network of Fig. 57 if tt = 2ts and the total reverse recovery time is 9 ns.
- Question : 46P - Plot IF versus VF using linear scales for the diode of Fig. 37. Note that the provided graph employs a log scale for the vertical axis.
- Question : 47P - a. Comment on the change in capacitance level with increase in reverse-bias potential for the diode of Fig. 37. b. What is the level of C(0)? c. Using VK 5 0.7 V, find the level of n in Eq. 9.
- Question : 48P - Does the reverse saturation current of the diode of Fig. 37 change significantly in magnitude for reverse-bias potentials in the range 225 V to 2100 V?
- Question : 49P - For the diode of Fig. 37 determine the level of IR at room temperature (25
- Question : 50P - For the diode of Fig. 37, determine the maximum ac (dynamic) resistance at a forward current of 0.1, 1.5, and 20 mA. Compare levels and comment on whether the results support conclusions derived in earlier sections of this chapter
- Question : 51P - Using the characteristics of Fig. 37, determine the maximum power dissipation levels for the diode at room temperature (25
- Question : 52P - Using the characteristics of Fig. 37, determine the temperature at which the diode current will be 50% of its value at room temperature (25
- Question : 53P - The following characteristics are specified for a particular Zener diode: VZ 5 29 V, VR 5 16.8 V, IZT 5 10 mA, IR 5 20 mA, and IZM 5 40 mA. Sketch the characteristic curve in the manner displayed in Fig. 47.
- Question : 54P - At what temperature will the 10-V Zener diode of Fig. 47 have a nominal voltage of 10.75 V? (Hint: Note the data in Table 7.)
- Question : 55P - Determine the temperature coefficient of a 5-V Zener diode (rated 25
- Question : 56P - Using the curves of Fig. 48a, what level of temperature coefficient would you expect for a 20-V diode? Repeat for a 5-V diode. Assume a linear scale between nominal voltage levels and a current level of 0.1 mA.
- Question : 57P - Determine the dynamic impedance for the 24-V diode at IZ = 10 mA for Fig. 48b. Note that it is a log scale
- Question : 58P - Compare the levels of dynamic impedance for the 24-V diode of Fig. 48b at current levels of 0.2, 1, and 10 mA. How do the results relate to the shape of the characteristics in this region?
- Question : 59P - Referring to Fig. 52e, what would appear to be an appropriate value of VK for this device? How does it compare to the value of VK for silicon and germanium?
- Question : 60P - Given that Eg 5 0.67 eV for germanium, find the wavelength of peak solar response for the material. Do the photons at this wavelength have a lower or higher energy level?
- Question : 61P - Using the information provided in Fig. 52, determine the forward voltage across the diode if the relative luminous intensity is l.5.
- Question : 62P - a. What is the percentage increase in relative efficiency of the device of Fig. 52 if the peak current is increased from 5 mA to 10 mA? b. Repeat part (a) for 30 mA to 35 mA (the same increase in current). c. Compare the percentage increase from parts (a) and (b). At what point on the curve would you say there is little to be gained by further increasing the peak current?
- Question : 63P - a. If the luminous intensity at 0
- Question : 64P - Sketch the current derating curve for the average forward current of the high-efficiency red LED of Fig. 52 as determined by temperature. (Note the absolute maximum ratings.)

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