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- Question : 1P - What is a fluid? How does it differ from a solid? How does a gas differ from a liquid?
- Question : 2P - Define internal, external, and open-channel flows.
- Question : 3P - Define incompressible flow and incompressible fluid. Must the flow of a compressible fluid necessarily be treated as compressible?
- Question : 4P - Consider the flow of air over the wings of an aircraft. Is this flow internal or external? How about the flow of gases through a jet engine? * Problems designated by a
- Question : 5P - What is forced flow? How does it differ from natural flow? Is flow caused by winds forced or natural flow?
- Question : 6P - How is the Mach number of a flow defined? What does a Mach number of 2 indicate?
- Question : 7P - When an airplane is flying at a constant speed relative to the ground, is it correct to say that the Mach number of this airplane is also constant?
- Question : 8P - Consider the flow of air at a Mach number of 0.12. Should this flow be approximated as being incompressible?
- Question : 9P - What is the no-slip condition? What causes it?
- Question : 10P - What is a boundary layer? What causes a boundary layer to develop?
- Question : 11P - What is a steady-flow process?
- Question : 12P - Define stress, normal stress, shear stress, and pressure.
- Question : 13P - What are system, surroundings, and boundary? 34
- Question : 14P - When analyzing the acceleration of gases as they flow through a nozzle, what would you choose as your system? What type of system is this?
- Question : 15P - When is a system a closed system, and when is it a control volume?
- Question : 16P - You are trying to understand how a reciprocating air compressor (a piston-cylinder device) works. What system would you use? What type of system is this? Mass, Force, and Units
- Question : 17P - What is the difference between pound-mass and pound-force?
- Question : 18P - In a news article, it is stated that a recently developed geared turbofan engine produces 15,000 pounds of thrust to propel the aircraft forward. Is
- Question : 19P - Explain why the light-year has the dimension of length.
- Question : 20P - What is the net force acting on a car cruising at a constant velocity of 70 km/h (a) on a level road and (b) on an uphill road?
- Question : 21P - A man goes to a traditional market to buy a steak for dinner. He finds a 12-oz steak (1 lbm = 16 oz) for $3.15. He then goes to the adjacent international market and finds a 320-g steak of identical quality for $3.30. Which steak is the better buy?
- Question : 22P - What is the weight, in N, of an object with a mass of 150 kg at a location where g = 9.6 m/s2?
- Question : 23P - What is the weight of a 1-kg substance in N, kN, kg
- Question : 24P - Determine the mass and the weight of the air contained in a room whose dimensions are 3 m
- Question : 25P - A 3-kW resistance heater in a water heater runs for 2 hours to raise the water temperature to the desired level. Determine the amount of electric energy used in both kWh and kJ.
- Question : 26P - A 195-lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale (a spring scale) and a beam scale (compares masses) to the moon where the local gravity is g = 5.48 ft/s2. Determine how much he will weigh (a) on the spring scale and (b) on the beam scale. Answers: (a) 33.2 lbf, (b) 195 lbf
- Question : 27P - The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes expressed in g
- Question : 28P - A 10-kg rock is thrown upward with a force of 280 N at a location where the local gravitational acceleration is 9.79 m/s2. Determine the acceleration of the rock, in m/s2.
- Question : 29P - Solve Prob. 1
- Question : 30P - The value of the gravitational acceleration g decreases with elevation from 9.807 m/s2 at sea level to 9.767 m/s2 at an altitude of 13,000 m, where large passenger planes cruise. Determine the percent reduction in the weight of an airplane cruising at 13,000 m relative to its weight at sea level.
- Question : 31P - At 45
- Question : 32P - The gravitational constant g is 9.807 m/s2 at sea level, but it decreases as you go up in elevation. A useful equation for this decrease in g is g = a
- Question : 33P - On average, an adult person breathes in about 7.0 liters of air per minute. Assuming atmospheric pressure and 20
- Question : 34P - While solving a problem, a person ends up with the equation E = 16 kJ + 7 kJ/kg at some stage. Here E is the total energy and has the unit of kilojoules. Determine how to correct the error and discuss what may have caused it.
- Question : 35P - An airplane ?ies horizontally at 70 m/s. Its propeller delivers 1500 N of thrust (forward force) to overcome aerodynamic drag (backward force). Using dimensional reasoning and unity converstion ratios, calculate the useful power delivered by the propeller in units of kW and horsepower.
- Question : 36P - If the airplane of Prob. 1
- Question : 37P - The boom of a ?re truck raises a ?reman (and his equipment
- Question : 38P - A 6-kg plastic tank that has a volume of 0.18 m3 is filled with liquid water. Assuming the density of water is 1000 kg/m3, determine the weight of the combined system. 35
- Question : 39P - Water at 15
- Question : 40P - A forklift raises a 90.5 kg crate 1.80 m. (a) Showing all your work and using unity conversion ratios, calculate the work done by the forklift on the crane, in units of kJ. (b) If it takes 12.3 seconds to lift the crate, calculate the useful power supplied to the crate in kilowatts.
- Question : 41P - The gas tank of a car is filled with a nozzle that discharges gasoline at a constant flow rate. Based on unit considerations of quantities, obtain a relation for the filling time in terms of the volume V of the tank (in L) and the discharge rate of gasoline (V?, in L/s).
- Question : 42P - A pool of volume V (in m3) is to be filled with water using a hose of diameter D (in m). If the average discharge velocity is V (in m/s) and the filling time is t (in s), obtain a relation for the volume of the pool based on unit considerations of quantities involved.
- Question : 43P - Based on unit considerations alone, show that the power needed to accelerate a car of mass m (in kg) from rest to velocity V (in m/s) in time interval t (in s) is proportional to mass and the square of the velocity of the car and inversely proportional to the time interval. Modeling and Solving Engineering Problems
- Question : 44P - What is the importance of modeling in engineering? How are the mathematical models for engineering processes prepared?
- Question : 45P - What is the difference between the analytical and experimental approach to engineering problems? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
- Question : 46P - When modeling an engineering process, how is the right choice made between a simple but crude and a complex but accurate model? Is the complex model necessarily a better choice since it is more accurate?
- Question : 47P - What is the difference between precision and accuracy? Can a measurement be very precise but inaccurate? Explain.
- Question : 48P - How do the differential equations in the study of a physical problem arise?
- Question : 49P - What is the value of the engineering software packages in (a) engineering education and (b) engineering practice?
- Question : 50P - Solve this system of three equations with three unknowns using appropriate software: 2x ? y + z = 9 3x2 + 2y = z + 2 xy + 2z = 14
- Question : 51P - Solve this system of two equations with two unknowns using appropriate software: x3 ? y2 = 10.5 3xy + y = 4.6
- Question : 52P - Determine a positive real root of this equation using appropriate software: 3.5x3 ? 10x0.5 ? 3x = ?4
- Question : 53P - Solve this system of three equations with three unknowns using appropriate software: x2y ? z = 1.5 x ? 3y0.5 + xz = ?2 x + y ? z = 4.2 Review Problems
- Question : 54P - A student buys a 5000 Btu window air conditioner for his apartment bedroom. He monitors it for one hour on a hot day and determines that it operates approximately 60 percent of the time (duty cycle = 60 percent) to keep the room at nearly constant temperature. (a) Showing all your work and using unity conversion ratios, calculate the rate of heat transfer into the bedroom through the walls, windows, etc. in units of Btu/h and in units of kW. (b) If the energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the air conditioner is 9.0 and electricity costs 7.5 cents per kilowatt-hr, calculate how much it costs (in cents) for him to run the air conditioner for one hour.
- Question : 55P - The weight of bodies may change somewhat from one location to another as a result of the variation of the gravitational acceleration g with elevation. Accounting for this variation using the relation in Prob. 1
- Question : 56P - The reactive force developed by a jet engine to push an airplane forward is called thrust, and the thrust developed by the engine of a Boeing 777 is about 85,000 lbf. Express this thrust in N and kgf.
- Question : 57P - For liquids, the dynamic viscosity ?, which is a measure of resistance against flow is approximated as ? = a10b/(T?c), where T is the absolute temperature, and a, b and c are experimental constants. Using the data listed in Table A
- Question : 58P - An important design consideration in two-phase pipe flow of solid-liquid mixtures is the terminal settling velocity below, which the flow becomes unstable and eventually the pipe becomes clogged. On the basis of extended transportation tests, the terminal settling velocity of a solid particle in the rest water given by VL = FL ?2gD(S ? 1), where FL is an experimental coefficient, g the gravitational acceleration, D the pipe diameter, and S the specific gravity of solid particle. What is the dimension of FL? Is this equation dimensionally homogeneous? 36
- Question : 59P - Consider the flow of air through a wind turbine whose blades sweep an area of diameter D (in m). The average air velocity through the swept area is V (in m/s). On the bases of the units of the quantities involved, show that the mass flow rate of air (in kg/s) through the swept area is proportional to air density, the wind velocity, and the square of the diameter of the swept area.
- Question : 60P - A tank is filled with oil whose density is ? = 850 kg/m3. If the volume of the tank is V = 2 m3, determine the amount of mass m in the tank. FIGURE P1
- Question : 61P - If mass, heat, and work are not allowed to cross the boundaries of a system, the system is called (a) Isolated (b) Isothermal (c) Adiabatic (d) Control mass (e) Control volume
- Question : 62P - The speed of an aircraft is given to be 260 m/s in air. If the speed of sound at that location is 330 m/s, the flight of aircraft is (a) Sonic (b) Subsonic (c) Supersonic (d) Hypersonic
- Question : 63P - One J/kg is equal to (a) 1 kPa ?m3 (b) 1 kN?m/kg (c) 0.001 kJ (d) 1 N?m (e) 1 m2/s2
- Question : 64P - Which is a unit for power? (a) Btu (b) kWh (c) kcal (d) hph (e) kW
- Question : 65P - The speed of an aircraft is given to be 950 km/h. If the speed of sound at that location is 315 m/s, the Mach number is (a) 0.63 (b) 0.84 (c) 1.0 (d) 1.07 (e) 1.20
- Question : 66P - The weight of a l0-kg mass at sea level is (a) 9.81 N (b) 32.2 kgf (c) 98.1 N (d) 10 N (e) l00 N
- Question : 67P - The weight of a 1-lbm mass is (a) 1 lbm?ft/s2 (b) 9.81 lbf (c) 9.81 N (d) 32.2 lbf (e) 1 lbf
- Question : 68P - A hydroelectric power plant operates at its rated power of 12 MW. If the plant has produced 26 million kWh of electricity in a specified year, the number of hours the plant has operated that year is (a) 2167 h (b) 2508 h (c) 3086 h (d) 3710 h (e) 8760 h Design and Essay Problems
- Question : 69P - Write an essay on the various massand volumemeasurement devices used throughout history. Also, explain the development of the modern units for mass and volume.
- Question : 70P - Search the Internet to find out how to properly add or subtract numbers while taking into consideration the number of significant digits. Write a summary of the proper technique, then use the technique to solve the following cases: (a) 1.006 + 23.47, (b) 703,200 ? 80.4, and (c) 4.6903 ? 14.58. Be careful to express your final answer to the appropriate number of significant digits.
- Question : 71P - Another unit is kgf, which is a force unit used mostly in Europe, and is defined as kp (kilopond). Explain the difference between kilopond (kp = kgf) and kilopound (103 lbf) from force units and write the unity conversion factor between them. The density of water at 4
- Question : 72P - Discuss why pressure tests of pressurized tanks such as steam boilers, pipes, and tanks including gases such as nitrogen, air, oxygen, etc. with high pressure are carried out hydrostatically by using liquids such as water and hydraulic oil.

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