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- Question : 1P - A number of common substances are Tar Sand
- Question : 2P - Give a word statement of each of the five basic conservation laws stated in Section 1.4, as they apply to a system.
- Question : 3P - The barrel of a bicycle tire pump becomes quite warm during use. Explain the mechanisms responsible for the temperature increase.
- Question : 4P - Discuss the physics of skipping a stone across the water surface of a lake. Compare these mechanisms with a stone as it bounces after being thrown along a roadway.
- Question : 5P - Make a guess at the order of magnitude of the mass (e.g., 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100, or 1000 lbm or kg) of standard air that is in a room 10 ft by 10 ft by 8 ft, and then compute this mass in lbm and kg to see how close your estimate was.
- Question : 6P - A spherical tank of inside diameter 16 ft contains compressed oxygen at 1000 psia and 77F. What is the mass of the oxygen?
- Question : 7P - Very small particles moving in fluids are known to experience a drag force proportional to speed. Consider a particle of net weight W dropped in a fluid. The particle experiences a drag force, FD 5 kV, where V is the particle speed. Determine the time required for the particle to accelerate from rest to 95 percent of its terminal speed, Vt, in terms of k, W, and g.
- Question : 8P - Consider again the small particle of Problem 1.7. Express the distance required to reach 95 percent of its terminal speed in percent terms of g, k, and W
- Question : 9P - A cylindrical tank must be designed to contain 5 kg of compressed nitrogen at a pressure of 200 atm (gage) and 20C. The design constraints are that the length must be twice the diameter and the wall thickness must be 0.5 cm. What are the external dimensions?
- Question : 10P - In a combustion process, gasoline particles are to be dropped in air at 200F. The particles must drop at least 10 in. in 1 s. Find the diameter d of droplets required for this. (The drag on these particles is given by FD 5 ??Vd, where V is the particle speed and ? is the air viscosity. To solve this problem, use Excel
- Question : 11P - For a small particle of styrofoam (1 lbm/ft3 ) (spherical, with diameter d 5 0.3 mm) falling in standard air at speed V, the drag is given by FD 5 3??Vd, where ? is the air viscosity. Find the maximum speed starting from rest, and the time it takes to reach 95 percent of this speed. Plot the speed as a function of time.
- Question : 12P - In a pollution control experiment, minute solid particles (typical mass 1 3 10213 slug) are dropped in air. The terminal speed of the particles is measured to be 0.2 ft/s. The drag of these particles is given by FD = kV, where V is the instantaneous particle speed. Find the value of the constant k. Find the time required to reach 99 percent of terminal speed.
- Question : 13P - For Problem 1.12, find the distance the particles travel before reaching 99 percent of terminal speed. Plot the distance traveled as a function of time.
- Question : 14P - A sky diver with a mass of 70 kg jumps from an aircraft. The aerodynamic drag force acting on the sky diver is known to be FD 5 kV2 , where k 5 0.25 N s 2 /m2 . Determine the maximum speed of free fall for the sky diver and the speed reached after 100 m of fall. Plot the speed of the sky diver as a function of time and as a function of distance fallen
- Question : 15P - For Problem 1.14, the initial horizontal speed of the sky diver is 70 m/s. As she falls, the k value for the vertical drag remains as before, but the value for horizontal motion is k 5 0.05 N s/m2 . Compute and plot the 2D trajectory of the sky diver.
- Question : 16P - The English perfected the longbow as a weapon after the Medieval period. In the hands of a skilled archer, the longbow was reputed to be accurate at ranges to 100 m or more. If the maximum altitude of an arrow is less than h 5 10 m while traveling to a target 100 m away from the archer, and neglecting air resistance, estimate the speed and angle at which the arrow must leave the bow. Plot the required release speed and angle as a function of height h.
- Question : 17P - For each quantity listed, indicate dimensions using mass as a primary dimension, and give typical SI and English units: (a) Power (b) Pressure (c) Modulus of elasticity (d) Angular velocity (e) Energy (f) Moment of a force (g) Momentum (h) Shear stress (i) Strain (j) Angular momentum
- Question : 18P - or each quantity listed, indicate dimensions using force as a primary dimension, and give typical SI and English units: (a) Power (b) Pressure (c) Modulus of elasticity (d) Angular velocity (e) Energy (f) Momentum (g) Shear stress (h) Specific heat (i) Thermal expansion coefficient (j) Angular momentum
- Question : 19P - Derive the following conversion factors: (a) Convert a viscosity of 1 m2 /s to ft2 /s. (b) Convert a power of 100 W to horsepower. (c) Convert a specific energy of 1 kJ/kg to Btu/lbm
- Question : 20P - Derive the following conversion factors: (a) Convert a pressure of 1 psi to kPa. (b) Convert a volume of 1 liter to gallons. (c) Convert a viscosity of 1 lbf s/ft2 to N s/m2 .
- Question : 21P - Derive the following conversion factors: (a) Convert a specific heat of 4.18 kJ/kg K to Btu/lbm R. (b) Convert a speed of 30 m/s to mph. (c) Convert a volume of 5.0 L to in3 .
- Question : 22P - Express the following in SI units: (a) 5 acre ft (b) 150 in3 /s (c) 3 gpm (d) 3 mph/s
- Question : 23P - Express the following in SI units: (a) 100 cfm (ft3 /min) (b) 5 gal (c) 65 mph (d) 5.4 acres
- Question : 24P - Express the following in BG units: (a) 50 m2 (b) 250 cc (c) 100 kW (d) 5 kg/m2
- Question : 25P - Express the following in BG units: (a) 180 cc/min (b) 300 kW hr (c) 50 N s/m2 (d) 40 m2 hr
- Question : 26P - While you
- Question : 27P - A farmer needs 4 cm of rain per week on his farm, with 10 hectares of crops. If there is a drought, how much water (L/min) will have to be supplied to maintain his crops?
- Question : 28P - Derive the following conversion factors: (a) Convert a volume flow rate in cubic inches per minute to cubic millimeters per minute. (b) Convert a volume flow rate in cubic meters per second to gallons per minute (gpm). (c) Convert a volume flow rate in liters per minute to gpm. (d) Convert a volume flow rate of air in standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) to cubic meters per hour. A standard cubic foot of gas occupies one cubic foot at standard temperature and pressure (T 5 15C and p 5 101.3 kPa absolute).
- Question : 29P - The density of mercury is given as 26.3 slug/ft3 . Calculate the specific gravity and the specific volume in m3 /kg of the mercury. Calculate the specific weight in lbf/ft3 on Earth and on the moon. Acceleration of gravity on the moon is 5.47 ft/s2 .
- Question : 30P - The kilogram force is commonly used in Europe as a unit of force. (As in the U.S. customary system, where 1 lbf is the force exerted by a mass of 1 lbm in standard gravity, 1 kgf is the force exerted by a mass of 1 kg in standard gravity.) Moderate pressures, such as those for auto or truck tires, are conveniently expressed in units of kgf/cm2 . Convert 32 psig to these units
- Question : 31P - In Section 1.6 we learned that the Manning equation computes the flow speed V (m/s) in a canal made from unfinished concrete, given the hydraulic radius Rh (m), the channel slope S0, and a Manning resistance coefficient constant value n 0.014. For a canal with Rh 5 7.5 m and a slope of 1/10, find the flow speed. Compare this result with that obtained using the same n value, but with Rh first converted to ft, with the answer assumed to be in ft/s. Finally, find the value of n if we wish to correctly use the equation for BG units (and compute V to check!).
- Question : 32P - From thermodynamics, we know that the coefficient of performance of an ideal air conditioner (COPideal) is given by COPideal
- Question : 33P - The maximum theoretical flow rate (slug/s) through a supersonic nozzle is m_ max
- Question : 34P - The mean free path ? of a molecule of gas is the average distance it travels before collision with another molecule. It is given by ? 5 C m ?d2 where m and d are the molecule
- Question : 35P - In Chapter 9 we will study aerodynamics and learn that the drag force FD on a body is given by FD 5 1 2 ?V2 ACD Hence the drag depends on speed V, fluid density ?, and body size (indicated by frontal area A) and shape (indicated by drag coefficient CD). What are the dimensions of CD?
- Question : 36P - A container weighs 3.5 lbf when empty. When filled with water at 90F, the mass of the container and its contents is 2.5 slug. Find the weight of water in the container, and its volume in cubic feet, using data from Appendix A.
- Question : 37P - An important equation in the theory of vibrations is m d2x dt2 1 c dx dt 1 kx 5 f
- Question : 38P - A parameter that is often used in describing pump performance is the specific speed, NScu , given by Nscu 5 N
- Question : 39P - A particular pump has an
- Question : 40P - Calculate the density of standard air in a laboratory from the ideal gas equation of state. Estimate the experimental uncertainty in the air density calculated for standard conditions (29.9 in. of mercury and 59F) if the uncertainty in measuring the barometer height is 60.1 in. of mercury and the uncertainty in measuring temperature is 60.5F. (Note that 29.9 in. of mercury corresponds to 14.7 psia.)
- Question : 41P - Repeat the calculation of uncertainty described in Problem 1.40 for air in a hot air balloon. Assume the measured barometer height is 759 mm of mercury with an uncertainty of 61 mm of mercury and the temperature is 60C with an uncertainty of 61C. [Note that 759 mm of mercury corresponds to 101 kPa (abs).]
- Question : 42P - The mass of the standard American golf ball is 1.62 6 0.01 oz and its mean diameter is 1.68 6 0.01 in. Determine the density and specific gravity of the American golf ball. Estimate the uncertainties in the calculated values.
- Question : 43P - A can of pet food has the following internal dimensions: 102 mm height and 73 mm diameter (each 61 mm at odds of 20 to 1). The label lists the mass of the contents as 397 g. Evaluate the magnitude and estimated uncertainty of the density of the pet food if the mass value is accurate to 61 g at the same odds
- Question : 44P - The mass flow rate in a water flow system determined by collecting the discharge over a timed interval is 0.2 kg/s. The scales used can be read to the nearest 0.05 kg and the stopwatch is accurate to 0.2 s. Estimate the precision with which the flow rate can be calculated for time intervals of (a) 10 s and (b) 1 min
- Question : 45P - The mass flow rate of water in a tube is measured using a beaker to catch water during a timed interval. The nominal mass flow rate is 100 g/s. Assume that mass is measured using a balance with a least count of 1 g and a maximum capacity of 1 kg, and that the timer has a least count of 0.1 s. Estimate the time intervals and uncertainties in measured mass flow rate that would result from using 100, 500, and 1000 mL beakers. Would there be any advantage in using the largest beaker? Assume the tare mass of the empty 1000 mL beaker is 500 g.
- Question : 46P - The mass of the standard British golf ball is 45.9 6 0.3 g and its mean diameter is 41.1 6 0.3 mm. Determine the density and specific gravity of the British golf ball. Estimate the uncertainties in the calculated values.
- Question : 47P - The estimated dimensions of a soda can are D 5 66.0 6 0.5 mm and H 5 110 6 0.5 mm. Measure the mass of a full can and an empty can using a kitchen scale or postal scale. Estimate the volume of soda contained in the can. From your measurements estimate the depth to which the can is filled and the uncertainty in the estimate. Assume the value of SG 5 1.055, as supplied by the bottler.
- Question : 48P - From Appendix A, the viscosity ? (N s/m2 ) of water at temperature T (K) can be computed from ? = A10B/(T2C) , where A = 2.414 3 1025 N s/m2 , B = 247.8 K, and C = 140 K. Determine the viscosity of water at 30C, and estimate its uncertainty if the uncertainty in temperature measurement is 60.5C.
- Question : 49P - Using the nominal dimensions of the soda can given in Problem 1.47, determine the precision with which the diameter and height must be measured to estimate the volume of the can within an uncertainty of 60.5 percent.
- Question : 50P - An enthusiast magazine publishes data from its road tests on the lateral acceleration capability of cars. The measurements are made using a 150-ft-diameter skid pad. Assume the vehicle path deviates from the circle by 62 ft and that the vehicle speed is read from a fifth-wheel speed-measuring system to 60.5 mph. Estimate the experimental uncertainty in a reported lateral acceleration of 0.7 g. How would you improve the experimental procedure to reduce the uncertainty?
- Question : 51P - The height of a building may be estimated by measuring the horizontal distance to a point on the ground and the angle from this point to the top of the building. Assuming these measurements are L 5 100 6 0.5 ft and ? 5 30 6 0.2, estimate the height H of the building and the uncertainty in the estimate. For the same building height and measurement uncertainties, use Excel
- Question : 52P - An American golf ball is described in Problem 1.42 Assuming the measured mass and its uncertainty as given, determine the precision to which the diameter of the ball must be measured so the density of the ball may be estimated within an uncertainty of 61 percent
- Question : 53P - A syringe pump is to dispense liquid at a flow rate of 100 mL/min. The design for the piston drive is such that the uncertainty of the piston speed is 0.001 in./min, and the cylinder bore diameter has a maximum uncertainty of 0.0005 in. Plot the uncertainty in the flow rate as a function of cylinder bore. Find the combination of piston speed and bore that minimizes the uncertainty in the flow rate.

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