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- Question : 1R - Where do you think the national border is in this image?
- Question : 2R - Have Google Earth display the border, and zoom out to a higher elevation. What countries are separated by this border? and . What is your impression of this national border?
- Question : 3R - Now turn off the borders again, navigate to -9.8396, -66.3362, and zoom out to an eye altitude of 100 km. How does land use differ across the border?
- Question : 4R - Have Google Earth display the border, and determine which countries are separated by the border: and . What natural feature marks the border on the landscape?
- Question : 5R - Latitude 19.50
- Question : 6R - We know the difference in latitude from the bottom of the map at 19.50
- Question : 7R - We would like to know the difference in latitude between 19.50
- Question : 8R - Determine the latitude of the MLO site (19.50 N + c1) ____________ N
- Question : 9R - Just in case you come across this situation again in the (near) future, write a general equation to solve this type of equation directly using the variable names a, b, c, and d: c = __________
- Question : 10R - Measure the distance from longitude 155.50
- Question : 11R - Map the distance from 155.50
- Question : 12R - The difference in longitude between 155.50
- Question : 13R - Use your general equation from part A6 to find the value of c2 (that is, the difference in longitude between 155.50
- Question : 14R - Use your general equation from part A6 to find the value of c2 (that is, the difference in longitude between 155.50
- Question : 15R - Regarding a first look at the map in Fig. A1.2.2 (a) What is the minimum easting on the map? ____________________ mE. What edge of the map is bounded by the minimum easting (top, bottom, left, right)? __________ (b) What is the minimum northing on the map? ____________________ mN. What edge of the map is bounded by the minimum northing (top, bottom, left, right)? __________ (c) Is the central meridian for this zone to the east (right) or west (left) of this map area? (Refer to Fig. 1.5 for assistance.) __________
- Question : 16R - The yellow square that surrounds most of the map in Fig. A1.2.2 represents a horizontal area on the ground at Yellowstone National Park that is 1000 m by 1000 m (1 km * 1 km) in dimension. We can use a side of that square like a bar scale. (a) As accurately as you can, measure the length of a side of the yellow square on the map in cm; we
- Question : 17R - Find the UTM coordinates of the middle of Grand Prismatic Spring. (a) Measure the map distance from the side that represents the minimum easting of the yellow square (c3). c3 = _____________ cm (b) Use the fractional scale of the mathematical expression you developed in part B2(c) to find the ground distance between the minimum easting and the middle of Grand Prismatic Spring (d3 = c3 * e3). d3 = _____________ cm (c) Convert d3 into meters, and call the result d39. d3 = _______________ m (d) What is the easting of Grand Prismatic Spring (minimum easting +d3 )? _______________ mE Follow the same general procedure to find the northing of Grand Prismatic Spring. (e) Measure the map distance from the side that represents the minimum northing of the yellow square (c4). c4 = _____________ cm (f) Use the fractional scale of the mathematical expression you developed in part B2(c) to find the ground distance between the minimum northing and the middle of Grand Prismatic Spring (d4 = c4 * e3). d4 = _____________ cm (g) Convert d4 into meters, and call the result d49. d4 = _______________ m (h) What is the northing of Grand Prismatic Spring (minimum northing +d4 )? _______________ mN (i) The UTM coordinates of the middle of Grand Prismatic Spring are 12T ____________________ mE ____________________ mN
- Question : 18R - Regarding a first look at the map in Fig. A1.3.1 (a) What is the minimum easting on the map? ____________________ mE. What edge of the map is bounded by the minimum easting (top, bottom, left, right)? __________ (b) What is the minimum northing listed on the map? ____________________ mN. What edge of the map is bounded by the minimum northing (top, bottom, left, right)? __________ (c) Is the central meridian for this zone to the east (right) or west (left) of this map area? (Refer to Fig. 1.5 for assistance.) __________
- Question : 19R - The yellow square that surrounds most of the map in Fig. A1.3.1 represents a horizontal area on the ground that is 1 km by 1 km in dimension, so we can use a side of that square as a bar scale. (a) As accurately as you can, measure the length of a side of this square in cm; we
- Question : 20R - Plotting the vent location: 12T 513671 mE 4923032 mN. (a) Based on the UTM coordinates of the vent, how far north of the 4923000 mN line is the vent on the ground at Yellowstone National Park? __________ m (b) Using the fractional scale, how far up from the yellow 4923000 mN line is the vent on the map? __________ cm (c) Draw a line on the map that is that distance above the 4923000 mN line. (d) Based on the UTM coordinates of the vent, how far east of the 513000 mE line is the vent? __________ m (e) Using the fractional scale, how far to the right of the yellow 513000 mE line is the vent on the map? __________ cm (f) Draw a line on the map that is that distance to the right of the 513671 mE line. (g) The active vent is located where the two lines you drew intersect. Put a small circle around that point, and add an appropriate label to the map near that point to identify it as the active vent.
- Question : 21R - Now imagine that you know the volume of the solid (V, measured in cm3) and the length of two of the three sides, b and c (measured in cm). Explain in words or with an equation how you can calculate the length of the remaining side, a.
- Question : 22R - The relationship between mass, density, and volume is that mass (m, measured in grams, g) is the product of density (r, measured in g/cm3) times volume (cm3): m = r * V. Recall that the Greek letter rho (r) is used to represent density. (a) If you know mass and density, you can calculate the volume. How? (b) If you know volume and density, you can calculate mass. How?
- Question : 23R - Imagine a rectangular prism of pure water whose density (r) is 1.0 g/cm3. The base of this imaginary prism is 1 cm on a side, and the remaining side of the prism is the water depth (a) measured in cm. The mass (m) of that prism of water, expressed in grams, is related to the water depth (a) in the following way: the value of a is __________ the value of m.
- Question : 24R - What is the volume of water displaced by the block? _____ cm3
- Question : 25R - The density of the water (rwater) is 1.0 g/cm3, so what is the mass of water displaced by the block? Multiply the volume of water by the density of the water. The mass of water displaced by the block is _____ g.
- Question : 26R - Using the previous answer, apply Archimedes
- Question : 27R - The block is a cube with a volume of 1 cm3. Now that you know the mass and the volume of the block, what is the density of the block (rblock)? rblock = _______________ g/cm3
- Question : 28R - The submerged part of the block is 70% of the total volume of the block. What is the ratio of the density of the block to the density of the water; that is, what is rblock divided by rwater? Express your answer as a percentage (e.g., 0.7 = 70%) rblock/rwater = _______ %
- Question : 29R - Using words rather than numbers, compare the ratio of the volume of the submerged part of the block (Vsubmerged) to the total volume of the block (Vtotal) with the ratio of the density of the block (rblock) to the density of the water (rwater). The ratio Vsubmerged/Vtotal is __________ the ratio rblock/rwater.
- Question : 30R - Carefully measure the three dimensions of the wood block and record the lengths. _____ cm _____ cm _____ cm
- Question : 31R - Determine the volume of the block. Vblock = ________ cm3
- Question : 32R - If one is available, use a pan balance to measure the mass (m) of the block. mblock = ________ g. Now determine the density of the block (rblock), which is equal to the volume divided by the mass (Vblock/mblock). rblock = __________ g/cm3
- Question : 33R - If one is available, use a pan balance to measure the mass (m) of the block. mblock = ________ g. Now determine the density of the block (rblock), which is equal to the volume divided by the mass (Vblock/mblock). rblock = __________ g/cm3
- Question : 34R - Determine the volume of the block that was submerged. _____ cm3
- Question : 35R - Calculate the ratio of the volume of the submerged part of the block to the total volume of the block. _____
- Question : 36R - Use Archimedes
- Question : 37R - Compare your answers for parts C3 and C7, and comment on which seems like it might be a more reliable or simpler method to measure the density of the block.
- Question : 38R - Seismologists indicate that the average thickness of basaltic ocean crust is about 7 km. As a thought experiment, imagine that a particular bit of solid oceanic crust with the same bulk density that you calculated for basalt is floating in a sea of upper mantle material that has a bulk density of 3.3 g/cm3 and that is hot enough to flow. (In fact, most of the oceanic crust is on top of a relatively cool, solid part of the upper mantle that does not flow, but let
- Question : 39R - Seismologists indicate that the average thickness of granitic continental crust is about 35 kilometers. Make the same kind of calculation you just completed in section C1, but this time, use the average density you determined for granite to estimate how high granitic continental crust would float in a viscous, flowing upper mantle. Show your work.
- Question : 40R - What is the difference (in km) between your answers in C1 and C2?
- Question : 41R - How does this difference between C1 and C2 compare to the actual difference between the average height of continents and average depth of oceans on the hypsographic curve (Fig. 1.11C)?
- Question : 42R - Make the following unit conversions using the Mathematical Conversions chart on page xx. 1. 10 mi. = ______________ km 2. 1 ft. = _______________ m 3. 16 km = _______________ m 4. 25 m = _______________ cm 5. 25.4 mL = _______________ cm3 6. 1.3 L = _______________ cm3
- Question : 43R - Write these numbers using scientific notation 1. 6,555,000,000 = __________ 2. 0.000001234 = ____________
- Question : 44R - Our current best estimate is that the western Grand Canyon in Arizona began to be excavated by river erosion about 6 million years ago. The greatest depth of the Grand Canyon is about 1.6 km. (a) What is the mean (average) rate that the Grand Canyon has been eroded into the Colorado Plateau during the past 6 million years, expressed in millimeters per year? Show your work below. (b) If erosion of the Grand Canyon proceeded at that rate during the most recent century, how much deeper is it today than it was on the day you were born? Show your work.
- Question : 45R - During Earth

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