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- Question : 1P - Consider the low-speed fl ight of the Space Shuttle as it is nearing a landing. If the air pressure and temperature at the nose of the shuttle are 1.2 atm and 300 K, respectively, what are the density and specifi c volume?
- Question : 2P - Consider 1 kg of helium at 500 K. Assuming that the total internal energy of helium is due to the mean kinetic energy of each atom summed over all the atoms, calculate the internal energy of this gas. Note: The molecular weight of helium is 4. Recall from chemistry that the molecular weight is the mass per mole of gas; that is, 1 mol of helium contains 4 kg of mass. Also, 1 mol of any gas contains 6.02
- Question : 3P - Calculate the weight of air (in pounds) contained within a room 20 ft long, 15 ft wide, and 8 ft high. Assume standard atmospheric pressure and temperature of 2116 lb/ft 2 and 59
- Question : 4P - Comparing with the case of Prob. 2.3, calculate the percentage change in the total weight of air in the room when the air temperature is reduced to ?10
- Question : 5P - At a point in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel, the air pressure and temperature are 0.5
- Question : 6P - In Prob. 2.5, assume that the rate at which air is being pumped into the tank is 0.5 lb m /s. Consider the instant in time at which there is 1000 lb m of air in the tank. Assume that the air temperature is uniformly 50
- Question : 7P - Assume that, at a point on the wing of the Concorde supersonic transport, the air temperature is ?10
- Question : 8P - At a point in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel, the air pressure and temperature are 0.5
- Question : 9P - Consider a fl at surface in an aerodynamic fl ow (say a fl at sidewall of a wind tunnel). The dimensions of this surface are 3 ft in the fl ow direction (the x direction) and 1 ft perpendicular to the fl ow direction (the y direction). Assume that the pressure distribution (in pounds per square foot) is given by p = 2116 ? 10 x and is independent of y . Assume also that the shear stress distribution (in pounds per square foot) is given by ? w = 90/( x + 9) 1/2 and is independent of y as shown in fi gure below. In these expressions, x is in feet, and x = 0 at the front of the surface. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net aerodynamic force on the surface.
- Question : 10P - A pitcher throws a baseball at 85 miles per hour. The fl ow fi eld over the baseball moving through the stationary air at 85 miles per hour is the same as that over a stationary baseball in an airstream that approaches the baseball at 85 miles per hour. (This is the principle of wind tunnel testing, as will be discussed in Ch. 4.) This picture of a stationary body with the fl ow moving over it is what we adopt here. Neglecting friction, the theoretical expression for the fl ow velocity over the surface of a sphere (like the baseball) is V 3V 2 V? sin . Here V? is the airstream velocity (the free-stream velocity far ahead of the sphere). An arbitrary point on the surface of the sphere is located by the intersection of the radius of the sphere with the surface, and ? is the angular position of the radius measured from a line through the center in the direction of the free stream (i.e., the most forward and rearward points on the spherical surface correspond to ? = 0
- Question : 11P - Consider an ordinary, helium-fi lled party balloon with a volume of 2.2 ft 3 . The lifting force on the balloon due to the outside air is the net resultant of the pressure distribution exerted on the exterior surface of the balloon. Using this fact, we can derive Archimedes
- Question : 12P - In the four-stroke, reciprocating, internal combustion engine that powers most automobiles as well as most small general aviation aircraft, combustion of the fuel
- Question : 13P - For the conditions of Prob. 2.12, calculate the force exerted on the top of the piston by the gas at ( a ) the beginning of combustion and ( b ) the end of combustion. The diameter of the circular piston face is 9 cm.
- Question : 14P - In a gas turbine jet engine, the pressure of the incoming air is increased by fl owing through a compressor; the air then enters a combustor that looks vaguely like a long can (sometimes called the combustion can ). Fuel is injected in to the combustor and burns with the air, and then the burned fuel
- Question : 15P - Throughout this book, you will frequently encounter velocities in terms of miles per hour. Consistent units in the English engineering system and the SI are ft/sec and m/sec, respectively. Consider a velocity of 60 mph. What is this velocity in ft/sec and m/sec?
- Question : 16P - You might fi nd it convenient to remember the results from Prob. 2.15. If you do, then you can almost instantly convert velocities in mph to ft/sec or m/sec. For example, using just the results of Prob. 2.15 for a velocity of 60 mph, quickly convert the maximum fl ight velocity of the F-86H (shown in Fig. 2.15 ) of 692 mph at sea level to ft/sec and m/sec.
- Question : 17P - Consider a stationary, thin, fl at plate with area of 2 m 2 for each face oriented perpendicular to a fl ow. The pressure exerted on the front face of the plate (facing into the fl ow) is 1.0715
- Question : 18P - The weight of the North American P-51 Mustang shown in Fig. 2.12b is 10,100 lb and its wing planform area is 233 ft 2 . Calculate the wing loading in both English engineering and SI units. Also, express the wing loading in terms of the nonconsistent unit kg f .
- Question : 19P - The maximum velocity of the P-51 shown in Fig. 2.12b is 437 mph at an altitude of 25,000 ft. Calculate the velocity in terms of km/hr and the altitude in terms of km.
- Question : 20P - The velocity of the Space Shuttle ( Fig. 2.24 ) at the instant of burnout of the rocket booster is 26,000 ft/sec. What is this velocity in km/sec?
- Question : 21P - By examining the scale drawing of the F4U-1D Corsair in Fig. 2.16 , obtain the length of the fuselage from the tip of the propeller hub to the rear tip of the fuselage, and also the wingspan (linear distance between the two wing tips), in meters.
- Question : 22P - The X-15 (see Fig. 5.92) was a rocketpowered research airplane designed to probe the mysteries of hypersonic fl ight. In 2014, the X-15 still holds the records for the fastest and highest fl ying piloted airplane (the Space Shuttle and Spaceship One, in this context, are space ships, not airplanes). On August 22, 1963, pilot Joseph Walker set the unoffi cial world altitude record of 354,200 feet. On October 3, 1967, pilot William J. Knight set the world speed record of 4520 mph (Mach 6.7) (a) Convert Walker
- Question : 23P - The X-15 is air-launched from under the wing of a B-52 mother ship. Immediately after launch, the pilot starts the XLR-99 rocket engine, which provides 57,000 lb of thrust. For the fi rst moments, the X-15 accelerates in horizontal fl ight. The gross weight of the airplane at the start is 34,000 lb. Calculate the initial acceleration of the airplane.
- Question : 24P - Frequently the acceleration of high-speed airplanes and rocket-powered space vehicles is quoted in
- Question : 25P - In the United States, the thrust of a jet engine is usually quoted in terms of pounds of thrust. Elsewhere, the thrust is generally stated in terms of kilo-newtons. The thrust of the Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engine turbofan is rated at 373.7 kN. What is the thrust in pounds?
- Question : 26P - The first stage of the Saturn rocket booster used to send the Apollo astronauts to the moon was powered by fi ve F-1 rocket engines. The thrust of rocket engines is sometimes given in terms of kg force. For example, the thrust of the F-1 engine is sometimes quoted as 690,000 kg. Calculate the F-1 thrust in the consistent units of (a) newtons, and (b) pounds.

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