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- Question : 1P - Make a list of 20 items in your environment that contain electronics. A PC and its peripherals are considered one item. (Do not confuse electromechanical timers, common in clothes dryers or the switch in a simple thermostat, with electronic circuits.)
- Question : 2P - The lower line in Fig. 1.4 is described by N = 1327
- Question : 3P - The upper line in Fig. 1.4 is described by N = (2.233
- Question : 4P - The change in memory density with time can be described by B = 19.97
- Question : 5P - (a) How many years does it take for memory chip density to increase by a factor of 2, based on the equation in Prob. 1.4? (b) By a factor of 10?
- Question : 6P - (a) How many years does it take for the number of transistors to increase by a factor of 2, based on the equation in Prob. 1.2? (b) By a factor of 10?
- Question : 7P - Repeat Prob. 1.6 using the equation in Prob. 1.3.
- Question : 8P - If you make a straight-line projection from Fig. 1.5, what will be the minimum feature size in integrated circuits in the year 2025? The curve can be described by F = 8.00
- Question : 9P - The filament of a small vacuum tube uses a power of approximately 1.5 W. Suppose that 268 million of these tubes are used to build the equivalent of a 256-Mb memory. (a) How much power is required for this memory? (b) If this power is supplied from a 220-V ac source, what is the current required by this memory? (c) If the vacuum tube occupies a volume of 80 cm3, what would be the volume occupied by the tubes in a 256-Mb memory.
- Question : 10P - Classify each of the following as an analog or digital quantity: (a) status of a light switch, (b) status of a thermostat, (c) water pressure, (d) gas tank level, (e) bank overdraft status, (f ) light bulb intensity, (g) stereo volume, (h) full or empty cup, (i) room temperature, ( j) TV channel selection, and (k) tire pressure.
- Question : 11P - An 8-bit A/D converter has VFS = 5 V. What is the value of the voltage corresponding to the LSB? If the input voltage is 3.06 V, what is the binary output code of the converter?
- Question : 12P - A 10-bit D/A converter has a full-scale voltage of 2.5 V. What is the voltage corresponding to the LSB? What is the output voltage if the binary input code is equal to (0101100110)?
- Question : 13P - A 12-bit D/A converter has a full-scale voltage of 10.00 V. What is the voltage corresponding to the LSB? To the MSB? What is the output voltage if the binary input code is equal to (100100101001)?
- Question : 14P - A 15-bit A/D converter has VFS = 10 V. What is the value of the LSB? If the input voltage is 6.89 V, what is the binary output code of the converter?
- Question : 15P - (a) A digital multimeter is being designed to have a readout with a range of 0 to 2000. How many bits will be required in its A/D converter? (b) Repeat for six decimal digits.
- Question : 16P - A 14-bit ADC has VFS = 5.12 V and the output code is (10101110111010). What is the size of the LSB for the converter? What range of input voltages corresponds to the ADC output code?
- Question : 17P - If iB = 0.003(2.5 + cos 1000t) A, what are IB and ib?
- Question : 18P - If vGS = (2.5 + 0.5u(t ? 1) + 0.1 cos 2000?t) V, what are VGS and vgs? [u(t) is the unit step function.]
- Question : 19P - If VC E = 5 V and vce = (2 cos 5000t) V, write the expression for vCE.
- Question : 20P - If VDS = 5 V and vds = (2 sin 2500t + 4 sin 1000t) V, write the expression for vDS.
- Question : 21P - Use voltage and current division to find V1, V2, I2, and I3 in the circuit in Fig. P1.22 if V = 1 V, R1 = 24 k, R2 = 30 k, and R3 = 11 k.
- Question : 22P - . Use voltage and current division to find V1, V2, I2, and I3 in the circuit in Fig. P1.22 if V = 8 V, R1 = 30 k, R2 = 24 k, and R3 = 15 k.
- Question : 23P - Use current and voltage division to find I1, I2, and V3 in the circuit in Fig. P1.24 if I = 200 A, R1 = 150 k, R2 = 68 k, and R3 = 82 k.
- Question : 24P - Use current and voltage division to find I1, I2, and V3 in the circuit in Fig. P1.24 if I = 4 mA, R1 = 2.4 k, R2 = 3.9 k, and R3 = 5.6 k.
- Question : 25P - Find the Th
- Question : 26P - Find the Norton equivalent representation of the circuit in Fig. P1.26 if gm = 0.002 S and R1 = 75 k.
- Question : 27P - Find the Norton equivalent representation of the circuit in Fig. P1.27(a) if ? = 150, R1 = 39 k, and R2 = 100 k. (b) Repeat for the circuit in Fig. P1.27(b).
- Question : 28P - (a) Find the Th
- Question : 29P - (a) What is the resistance presented to source vi by the circuit in Fig. P1.27(a) if ? = 75, R1 = 100 k, and R2 = 39 k? (b) Repeat for Fig. P1.27(b).
- Question : 30P - Find the Th
- Question : 31P - (a) What is the equivalent resistance between terminals A and B in Fig. P1.31? (b) What is the equivalent resistance between terminals C and D? (c) What is the equivalent resistance between terminals E and F? (d) What is the equivalent resistance between terminals B and D?
- Question : 32P - (a) Find the Th
- Question : 33P - (a) Find the Th
- Question : 34P - (a) Assume that the voltage source in Fig. P1.32 is the correct value, but there is some problem with the connections in the rest of the circuit. What are the maximum and minimum possible voltages at the output of the circuit. (b) Repeat for the circuit in Fig. P1.33.
- Question : 35P - A signal voltage is expressed as v(t) = (5 sin 4000?t + 3 cos 2000?t) V. Draw a graph of the amplitude spectrum for v(t) similar to the one in Fig. 1.17(b).
- Question : 36P - Voltage v1 = 2 sin 20,000?t is multiplied by voltage v2 = 2 sin 2000?t. Draw a graph of the amplitude spectrum for v = v1
- Question : 37P - The input and output voltages of an amplifier are expressed as vi = 10?4 sin(2
- Question : 38P - The input and output voltages of an amplifier are expressed as vi = [10?3 sin(3000?t) + 2
- Question : 39P - What is the voltage gain of the amplifier in Fig. 1.20 if (a) R1 = 12 k and R2 = 560 k? (b) For R1 = 18 k and R2 = 360 k? (c) For R1 = 2 k and R2 = 62 k?
- Question : 40P - Write an expression for the output voltage vo(t) of the circuit in Fig. 1.20 if R1 = 910, R2 = 7.5 k, and vi(t) = (0.01 sin 750?t) V. Write an expression for the current is(t).
- Question : 41P - Find an expression for the voltage gain Av = vo/vi for the amplifier in Fig. P1.41.
- Question : 42P - Find an expression for the voltage gain Av = vo/vi for the amplifier in Fig. P1.42.
- Question : 43P - Write an expression for the output voltage vo(t) of the circuit in Fig. P1.43 if R1 = 2 k, R2 = 10 k, R3 = 51 k, v1(t) = (0.01 sin 3770t) V, and v2(t) = (0.05 sin 10,000t) V. Write an expression for the voltage appearing at the inverting input (v?).
- Question : 44P - The circuit in Fig. P1.44 can be used as a simple 3-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The individual bits of the binary input word (b1 b2 b3) are used to control the position of the switches, with the resistor connected to 0 V if bi = 0 and connected to VREF if bi = 1. (a) What is the output voltage for the DAC as shown with input data of (011) if VREF = 5.0 V? (b) Suppose the input data change to (100). What will be the new output voltage? (c) Make a table giving the output voltages for all eight possible input data combinations.
- Question : 45P - An amplifier has a voltage gain of 10 for frequencies below 6000 Hz, and zero gain for frequencies above 6000 Hz. Classify this amplifier.
- Question : 46P - An amplifier has a voltage gain of zero for frequencies below 1000 Hz, and zero gain for frequencies above 5000 Hz. In between these two frequencies the amplifier has a gain of 20. Classify this amplifier.
- Question : 47P - An amplifier has a voltage gain of 16 for frequencies above 10 kHz, and zero gain for frequencies below 10 kHz. Classify this amplifier.
- Question : 48P - The amplifier in Prob. 1.45 has an input signal given by vs(t) = (5 sin 2000?t + 3 cos 8000?t + 2 cos 15000?t) V. Write an expression for the output voltage of the amplifier.
- Question : 49P - The amplifier in Prob. 1.46 has an input signal given by vs(t) = (0.5 sin 2500?t + 0.75 cos 8000?t + 0.6 cos 12,000?t) V. Write an expression for the output voltage of the amplifier.
- Question : 50P - The amplifier in Prob. 1.47 has an input signal given by vs(t) = (0.5 sin 2500?t + 0.75 cos 8000?t + 0.8 cos 12,000?t) V. Write an expression for the output voltage of the amplifier.
- Question : 51P - An amplifier has an input signal that can be represented as v(t) = 4 ? sin ?ot + 1 3 sin 3?ot + 1 5 sin 5?ot V where fo = 1000 Hz (a) Use MATLAB to plot the signal for 0 ? t ? 5 ms. (b) The signal v(t) is amplified by an amplifier that provides a voltage gain of 5 at all frequencies. Plot the output voltage for this amplifier for 0 ? t ? 5 ms. (c) A second amplifier has a voltage gain of 5 for frequencies below 2000 Hz but zero gain for frequencies above 2000 Hz. Plot the output voltage for this amplifier for 0 ? t ? 5 ms. (d) A third amplifier has a gain of 5 at 1000 Hz, a gain of 3 at 3000 Hz, and a gain of 1 at 5000 Hz. Plot the output voltage for this amplifier for 0 ? t ? 5 ms.
- Question : 52P - (a) A 4.7-k resistor is purchased with a tolerance of 1 percent. What is the possible range of values for this resistor? (b) Repeat for a 5 percent tolerance. (c) Repeat for a 10 percent tolerance.
- Question : 53P - A 10,000 F capacitor has an asymmetric tolerance specification of +20%/?50%. What is the possible range of values for this capacitor?
- Question : 54P - The power supply voltage for a circuit must vary by no more than 50 mV from its nominal value of 1.8 V. What is its tolerance specification?
- Question : 55P - An 8200- resistor is purchased with a tolerance of 10 percent. It is measured with an ohmmeter and found to have a value of 7905 . Is this resistor within its specification limits? Explain your answer.
- Question : 56P - (a) The output voltage of a 5-V power supply is measured to be 5.30 V. The power supply has a 5 percent tolerance specification. Is the supply operating within its specification limits? Explain your answer. (b) The voltmeter that was used to make the measurement has a 1.5 percent tolerance. Does that change your answer? Explain.
- Question : 57P - A resistor is measured and found to have a value of 6066 at 0?C and 6562 at 100?C. What are the temperature coefficient and nominal value for the resistor? Assume TNOM = 27?C.
- Question : 58P - A resistor has a value of 7.5 k at 30?C, a tolerance of 5%, and a TCR of 2200 ppm/?C. What is the possible range of values of this resistor at a temperature of 75?C?
- Question : 59P - Find the worst-case values of I1, I2, and V3 for the circuit in Prob. 1.24 if the resistor tolerances are 10 percent and the current source tolerance is 2 percent.
- Question : 60P - Find the worst-case values of V1, I2, and I3 for the circuit in Prob. 1.22 if the resistor tolerances are 10 percent and the voltage source tolerance is 5 percent.
- Question : 61P - Find the worst-case values for the Th
- Question : 62P - Perform a 200-case Monte Carlo analysis for the circuit in Prob. 1.59 and compare the results to the worst-case calculations.
- Question : 63P - Perform a 200-case Monte Carlo analysis for the circuit in Prob. 1.60 and compare the results to the worst-case calculations.
- Question : 64P - (a) Express the following numbers to three significant digits of precision: 3.2947, 0.995171, ?6.1551. (b) To four significant digits. (c) Check these answers using your calculator.
- Question : 65P - (a) What is the voltage developed by a current of 1.763 mA in a resistor of 20.70 k? Express the answer with three significant digits. (b) Express the answer with two significant digits. (c) Repeat for I = 102.1 A and R = 97.80 k.

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