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- Question : 1P - Consider the low-speed flight of the Space Shuttle as it is nearing a landing. If the air pressure and temperature at the nose of the shuttle are 1.2 atm and 300 K, respectively, what are the density and specific volume?
- Question : 2P - Consider I kg of helium at 500 K. Assuming that the total internal energy of helium is due to the mean kinetic energy of each atom summed over all the atoms, calculate the internal energy of this gas. Note: The molecular weight of helium is 4. Recall from chemistry that the molecular weight is the mass per mole of gas; that is, I mol of helium contains 4 kg of mass. Also, I mol of any gas contains 6.02 x !()23 molecules or atoms (Avogadro's number).
- Question : 3P - Calculate the weight of air (in pounds) contained within a room 20 ft long, 15 ft wide, and 8 ft high. Assume standard atmospheric pressure and temperature of 2116lb/ft2 and 59
- Question : 4P - Comparing with the case ofProb. 2.3, calculate the percentage change in the total weight of air in the room when the air temperature is reduced to - I 0
- Question : 5P - 2.5 If 1500 lb., of air is pumped into a previously empty 900 ft3 storage tank and the air temperature in the tank is uniformly 70
- Question : 6P - In Prob. 2.5, assume that the rate at which air is being pumped into the tank is 0.5 lb.,/s. Consider the instant in time at which there is 1000 lb., of air in the tank. Assume that the air temperature is uniformly 50
- Question : 7P - Assume that, at a point on the wing of the Concorde supersonic transport, the air temperature is -10
- Question : 8P - At a point in the test section of a supersonic wind tuinnel, the air pressure and temperature are 0.5 x 105 N/m2 and 240 K, respectively. Calculate the specific volume.
- Question : 9P - Consider a flat surface. in an aerodynamic flow (say a flat sidewall of a wind tunnel). The dimensions of this surface are 3 ft in the fuw direction (the x direction) and 1 ft perpendicular to the fuw direction (they direction). Assume that the pressure distribution (in pounds per square foot) is given byp = 2116- Hk and is independent of y. Assume also that the shear stress distribution (in pounds per square foot) is given by -t;., = 90/(x + 9)112 and is independent of y as shown in figure below. In these expressions, x is in feet, and x = 0 at the front of the surface. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net aerodynamic force on the surface.
- Question : 10P - A pitcher throws a baseball at 85 miles per hour. The :flow field over the baseball moving through the stationary air at 85 miles per hour is the same as that over a stationary baseball in an airstream that approaches the baseball at 85 miles per hour. (This is the principle of wind tunnel testing, as will be discussed inCh. 4.) This picture of a stationary b>ody with the :flow moving over it is what we adopt here. Neglecting friction, the theoretical expression for the :flow velocity over the surface of a sphere (like the baseball) is v = P'- sin () . Here v_ is the airstream velocity (the free-stream velocity far ahead of the sphere). An arbitrary point on the surface of the sphere is located by the intersection of the radius of the sphere with the surface, and 8 is the angular position of the radius measured from a line through the center in the direction of the free stream (i.e., the most forward and rearward points on the spherical surface correspond to f)= 0
- Question : 11P - Consider an ordinary, helium-filled party balloon with a volume of2.2 ft3. The lifting force on the balloon due to the outside air is the net resultant of the pressure distribution exerted on the exterior surface of the balloon. Using this fact, we can derive Archimedes' principle, namely that the upward force on the balloon is equal to the weight of the air displaced by the balloon. Assuming that the balloon is at sea level, where the air density is 0.002377 slug/ft3, calculate the maximum weight that can b>e lifted by the balloon. Note: The molecular weight of air is 28.8 and that of helium is 4.
- Question : 12P - In the four-stroke, reciprocating, internal combustion engine that powers most automobiles as well as most small general aviation aircraft, combustion of the fuel- air mixture takes place in the volume b>etween the top of the piston and the top of the cylinder. (Reciprocating engines are discussed inCh. 9.) The gas mixture is ignited when the piston is essentially at the end of the compression stroke (called top dead center), when the gas is compressed to a relatively high pressure and is squeezed into the smallest volume that exists between the top of the piston and the top of the cylinder. Combustion takes place rapidly b>efore the piston has much time to start down on the power stroke. Hence, the volume of the gas during combustion stays constant; that is, the combustion process is at co71Stant volume. Consider the case where the gas density and temperature at the instant combustion b>egins are 11.3 kg/m3 and 625 K, respectively. At the end of the constant-volume combustion process, the gas temperature is 4000 K. Calculate the gas pressure at the end of the constant-volume combustion. Assume that the specific gas constant for the fuel-air mixture is the same as that for pure air.
- Question : 13P - For the conditions ofProb. 2.12, calculate the force exerted on the top of the piston by the gas at (a) the beginning of combustion and (b) the end of combustion. The diameter of the circular piston face is 9 em.
- Question : 14P - In a gas turbine jet engine, the pressure of the incoming air is increased by flowing through a compressor; the air then enters a combustor that looks vaguely like a long can (sometimes called the combustion can). Fuel is injected in to the combustor and burns with the air, and then the burned fuel-air mixture exits the combustor at a higher temperature than the air coming into the combustor. (Gas turbine jet engines are discussed inCh. 9.) The pressure of the flow through the combustor remains relatively constant; that is, the combustion process is at consumt pressure. Consider the case where the gas pressure and temperature entering the combustor are 4 x 106 N/m2 and 900 K, respectively, and the gas temperature exiting the combustor is 1500 K. Calculate the gas density at (a) the inlet to the combustor and (b) the exit of the combustor. Assume that the specific gas constant for the fuel-air mixture is the same as that for pure air.
- Question : 15P - Throughout this book, you will frequently encounter velocities in terms of miles per hour. Consistent units in the English engineering system and the SI are ftlsec and m/sec, respectively. Consider a velocity of 60 mph. What is this velocity in ftlsec and rnlsec?
- Question : 16P - You might find it convenient to remember the results from Prob. 2.15. If you do, then you can almost instantly convert velocities in mph to ftlsec or m/sec. For example, using just the results ofProb. 2.15 for a velocity of60 mph, quickly convert the maximum flight velocity of the F-86H (shown in Fig. 2.15) of 692 mph at sea level to ftlsec and m/sec.
- Question : 17P - Consider a stationary, thin, fiat plate with area of 2m2 for each face oriented perpendicular to a flow. The pressure exerted on the front face of the plate (facing into the flow) is 1.0715 x I OS N/m2, and is constant over the face. The pressure exerted on the back face of the plate (facing away from the flow) is 1.01 x 10SN/m2, and is constant over the face. Calculate the aerodynamic force in pounds on the plate. Note: The effect of shear stress is negligible for this case.
- Question : 18P - The weight of the North American P-51 Mustang shown in Fig. 2.12b is 10,100 lb and its wing planform area is 233 ft2. Calculate the wing loading in both English engineering and SI units. Also, express the wing loading in terms of the nonconsistent unit ????
- Question : 19P - The maximum velocity oftheP-51 shown in Fig. 2.12b is 437 mph at an altitude of 25,000 ft. Calculate the velocity in terms of kmlhr and the altitude in terms ofkm.
- Question : 20P - The velocity of the Space Shuttle (Fig. 2.24) at the instant of burnout of the rocket booster is 26,000 ftlsec. What is this velocity in km!sec?
- Question : 21P - By examining the scale drawing of the F4U-1D Corsair in Fig. 2.16, obtain the length of the fuselage from the tip of the propeller hub to the rear tip of the fuselage, and also the wingspan (linear distance between the two wing tips), in meters.

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