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- Question : 1P - What is the difference between the classical and the statistical approaches to thermodynamics?
- Question : 2P - Why does a bicyclist pick up speed on a downhill road even when he is not pedaling? Does this violate the conservation of energy principle?
- Question : 3P - An office worker claims that a cup of cold coffee on his table warmed up to 80
- Question : 4P - An office worker claims that a cup of cold coffee on his table warmed up to 80
- Question : 5P - What is the difference between kg-mass and kgforce?
- Question : 6P - What is the net force acting on a car cruising at a constant velocity of 70 km/h (a) on a level road and (b) on an uphill road?
- Question : 7P - A 3-kg plastic tank that has a volume of 0.2 m3 is filled with liquid water. Assuming the density of water is 1000 kg/m3, determine the weight of the combined system
- Question : 8P - Determine the mass and the weight of the air contained in a room whose dimensions are 6 m 6 m 8 m. Assume the density of the air is 1.16 kg/m3.
- Question : 9P - At 45
- Question : 10P - A 150-lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale (a spring scale) and a beam scale (compares masses) to the moon where the local gravity is g 5.48 ft/s2. Determine how much he will weigh (a) on the spring scale and (b) on the beam scale. Answers: (a) 25.5 lbf; (b) 150 lbf
- Question : 11P - The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes expressed in g
- Question : 12P - A 5-kg rock is thrown upward with a force of 150 N at a location where the local gravitational acceleration is 9.79 m/s2. Determine the acceleration of the rock, in m/s2.
- Question : 13P - Solve Prob. 1
- Question : 14P - The value of the gravitational acceleration g decreases with elevation from 9.807 m/s2 at sea level to 9.767 m/s2 at an altitude of 13,000 m, where large passenger planes cruise. Determine the percent reduction in the weight of an airplane cruising at 13,000 m relative to its weight at sea level.
- Question : 15P - A large fraction of the thermal energy generated in the engine of a car is rejected to the air by the radiator through the circulating water. Should the radiator be analyzed as a closed system or as an open system? Explain.
- Question : 16P - A can of soft drink at room temperature is put into the refrigerator so that it will cool. Would you model the can of soft drink as a closed system or as an open system? Explain.
- Question : 17P - What is the difference between intensive and extensive properties?
- Question : 18P - For a system to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, do the temperature and the pressure have to be the same everywhere?
- Question : 19P - What is a quasi-equilibrium process? What is its importance in engineering?
- Question : 20P - Define the isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric processes.
- Question : 21P - What is the state postulate?
- Question : 22P - Is the state of the air in an isolated room completely specified by the temperature and the pressure? Explain
- Question : 23P - What is a steady-flow process?
- Question : 24P - What is specific gravity? How is it related to density?
- Question : 25P - The density of atmospheric air varies with elevation, decreasing with increasing altitude. (a) Using the data given in the table, obtain a relation for the variation of density with elevation, and calculate the density at an elevation of 7000 m. (b) Calculate the mass of the atmosphere using the correlation you obtained. Assume the earth to be a perfect sphere with a radius of 6377 km, and take the thickness of the atmosphere to be 25 km.
- Question : 26P - What is the zeroth law of thermodynamics?
- Question : 27P - What are the ordinary and absolute temperature scales in the SI and the English system?
- Question : 28P - Consider an alcohol and a mercury thermometer that read exactly 0
- Question : 29P - The deep body temperature of a healthy person is 37
- Question : 30P - Consider a system whose temperature is 18
- Question : 31P - The temperature of a system rises by 15
- Question : 32P - The temperature of a system drops by 45
- Question : 33P - Consider two closed systems A and B. System A contains 3000 kJ of thermal energy at 20
- Question : 34P - What is the difference between gage pressure and absolute pressure?
- Question : 35P - Explain why some people experience nose bleeding and some others experience shortness of breath at high elevations.
- Question : 36P - Someone claims that the absolute pressure in a liquid of constant density doubles when the depth is doubled. Do you agree? Explain.
- Question : 37P - A tiny steel cube is suspended in water by a string. If the lengths of the sides of the cube are very small, how would you compare the magnitudes of the pressures on the top, bottom, and side surfaces of the cube?
- Question : 38P - Express Pascal
- Question : 39P - Consider two identical fans, one at sea level and the other on top of a high mountain, running at identical speeds. How would you compare (a) the volume flow rates and (b) the mass flow rates of these two fans?
- Question : 40P - A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 35 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 92 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the chamber.
- Question : 41P - A manometer is used to measure the air pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 1.25, and the differential height between the two arms of the manometer is 28 in. If the local atmospheric pressure is 12.7 psia, determine the absolute pressure in the tank for the cases of the manometer arm with the (a) higher and (b) lower fluid level being attached to the tank.
- Question : 42P - The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 43P - Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 750 mm Hg. Take the density of mercury to be 13,600 kg/m3.
- Question : 44P - The gage pressure in a liquid at a depth of 3 m is read to be 28 kPa. Determine the gage pressure in the same liquid at a depth of 9 m.
- Question : 45P - The absolute pressure in water at a depth of 5 m is read to be 145 kPa. Determine (a) the local atmospheric pressure, and (b) the absolute pressure at a depth of 5 m in a liquid whose specific gravity is 0.85 at the same location.
- Question : 46P - Show that 1 kgf/cm2 14.223 psi.
- Question : 47P - A 200-pound man has a total foot imprint area of 72 in2. Determine the pressure this man exerts on the ground if (a) he stands on both feet and (b) he stands on one foot.
- Question : 48P - Consider a 70-kg woman who has a total foot imprint area of 400 cm2. She wishes to walk on the snow, but the snow cannot withstand pressures greater than 0.5 kPa. Determine the minimum size of the snowshoes needed (imprint area per shoe) to enable her to walk on the snow without sinking.
- Question : 49P - A vacuum gage connected to a tank reads 15 kPa at a location where the barometric reading is 750 mm Hg. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank. Take rHg 13,590 kg/m3. Answer: 85.0 kPa
- Question : 50P - A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 50 psi at a location where the barometric reading is 29.1 mm Hg. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank. Take rHg 848.4 lbm/ft3. Answer: 64.3 psia
- Question : 51P - A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 500 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 94 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank.
- Question : 52P - The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 mbars at the beginning of a hiking trip and 780 mbars at the end. Neglecting the effect of altitude on local gravitational acceleration, determine the vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air density of 1.20 kg/m3. Answer: 1274 m
- Question : 53P - The basic barometer can be used to measure the height of a building. If the barometric readings at the top and at the bottom of a building are 730 and 755 mm Hg, respectively, determine the height of the building. Take the densities of air and mercury to be 1.18 kg/m3 and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.
- Question : 54P - Solve Prob. 1
- Question : 55P - Determine the pressure exerted on a diver at 30 m below the free surface of the sea. Assume a barometric pressure of 101 kPa and a specific gravity of 1.03 for seawater. Answer: 404.0 kPa
- Question : 56P - Determine the pressure exerted on the surface of a submarine cruising 175 ft below the free surface of the sea. Assume that the barometric pressure is 14.7 psia and the specific gravity of seawater is 1.03.
- Question : 57P - A gas is contained in a vertical, frictionless piston
- Question : 58P - Reconsider Prob. 1
- Question : 59P - Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure. If the reading on the pressure gage is 80 kPa, determine the distance between the two fluid levels of the manometer if the fluid is (a) mercury (r 13,600 kg/m3) or (b) water (r 1000 kg/m3).
- Question : 60P - Reconsider Prob. 1
- Question : 61P - A manometer containing oil (r 850 kg/m3) is attached to a tank filled with air. If the oil-level difference between the two columns is 60 cm and the atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa, determine the absolute pressure of the air in the tank. Answer: 103 kPa
- Question : 62P - A mercury manometer (r 13,600 kg/m3) is connected to an air duct to measure the pressure inside. The difference in the manometer levels is 15 mm, and the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. (a) Judging from Fig. P1
- Question : 63P - A mercury manometer (r 13,600 kg/m3) is connected to an air duct to measure the pressure inside. The difference in the manometer levels is 15 mm, and the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. (a) Judging from Fig. P1
- Question : 64P - Blood pressure is usually measured by wrapping a closed air-filled jacket equipped with a pressure gage around the upper arm of a person at the level of the heart. Using a mercury manometer and a stethoscope, the systolic pressure (the maximum pressure when the heart is pumping) and the diastolic pressure (the minimum pressure when the heart is resting) are measured in mm Hg. The systolic and diastolic pressures of a healthy person are about 120 mm Hg and 80 mm Hg, respectively, and are indicated as 120/80. Express both of these gage pressures in kPa, psi, and meter water column.
- Question : 65P - The maximum blood pressure in the upper arm of a healthy person is about 120 mm Hg. If a vertical tube open to the atmosphere is connected to the vein in the arm of the person, determine how high the blood will rise in the tube. Take the density of the blood to be 1050 kg/m3.
- Question : 66P - Consider a 1.8-m-tall man standing vertically in water and completely submerged in a pool. Determine the difference between the pressures acting at the head and at the toes of this man, in kPa.
- Question : 67P - Consider a U-tube whose arms are open to the atmosphere. Now water is poured into the U-tube from one arm, and light oil (r 790 kg/m3) from the other. One arm contains 70-cm-high water, while the other arm contains both fluids with an oil-to-water height ratio of 4. Determine the height of each fluid in that arm.
- Question : 68P - The hydraulic lift in a car repair shop has an output diameter of 30 cm and is to lift cars up to 2000 kg. Determine the fluid gage pressure that must be maintained in the reservoir.
- Question : 69P - Freshwater and seawater flowing in parallel horizontal pipelines are connected to each other by a double U-tube manometer, as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 70P - Repeat Prob. 1
- Question : 71P - The pressure in a natural gas pipeline is measured by the manometer shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 72P - Repeat Prob. 1
- Question : 73P - The gage pressure of the air in the tank shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 74P - Repeat Prob. 1
- Question : 75P - The top part of a water tank is divided into two compartments, as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 76P - Consider a double-fluid manometer attached to an air pipe shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 77P - Consider the system shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 78P - A multifluid container is connected to a U-tube, as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 79P - What is the value of the engineering software packages in (a) engineering education and (b) engineering practice?
- Question : 80P - Determine a positive real root of this equation using EES: 2x3 10x0.5 3x 3
- Question : 81P - Solve this system of two equations with two unknowns using EES: x3 y2 7.75 3xy y 3.5
- Question : 82P - Solve this system of three equations with three unknowns using EES: 2x y z 5 3x2 2y z 2 xy 2z 8
- Question : 83P - Solve this system of three equations with three unknowns using EES: x y z 2 x 3y0.5 xz 2 x2y z 1
- Question : 84P - Specific heat is defined as the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree. The specific heat of water at room temperature is 4.18 kJ/kg
- Question : 85P - A hydraulic lift is to be used to lift a 2500 kg weight by putting a weight of 25 kg on a piston with a diameter of 10 cm. Determine the diameter of the piston on which the weight is to be placed.
- Question : 86P - A vertical piston
- Question : 87P - The pilot of an airplane reads the altitude 3000 m and the absolute pressure 58 kPa when flying over a city. Calculate the local atmospheric pressure in that city in kPa and in mm Hg. Take the densities of air and mercury to be 1.15 kg/m3 and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.
- Question : 88P - The weight of bodies may change somewhat from one location to another as a result of the variation of the gravitational acceleration g with elevation. Accounting for this variation using the relation in Prob. 1
- Question : 89P - A man goes to a traditional market to buy a steak for dinner. He finds a 12-oz steak (1 lbm 16 oz) for $3.15. He then goes to the adjacent international market and finds a 320-g steak of identical quality for $2.80. Which steak is the better buy?
- Question : 90P - The reactive force developed by a jet engine to push an airplane forward is called thrust, and the thrust developed by the engine of a Boeing 777 is about 85,000 lbf. Express this thrust in N and kgf.
- Question : 91P - The efficiency of a refrigerator increases by 3 percent for each
- Question : 92P - The boiling temperature of water decreases by about 3
- Question : 93P - The average body temperature of a person rises by about 2
- Question : 94P - Hyperthermia of 5
- Question : 95P - A house is losing heat at a rate of 4500 kJ/h per
- Question : 96P - The average temperature of the atmosphere in the world is approximated as a function of altitude by the relation where Tatm is the temperature of the atmosphere in K and z is the altitude in km with z 0 at sea level. Determine the average temperature of the atmosphere outside an airplane that is cruising at an altitude of 12,000 m.
- Question : 97P - Joe Smith, an old-fashioned engineering student, believes that the boiling point of water is best suited for use as the reference point on temperature scales. Unhappy that the boiling point corresponds to some odd number in the current absolute temperature scales, he has proposed a new absolute temperature scale that he calls the Smith scale. The temperature unit on this scale is smith, denoted by S, and the boiling point of water on this scale is assigned to be 1000 S. From a thermodynamic point of view, discuss if it is an acceptable temperature scale. Also, determine the ice point of water on the Smith scale and obtain a relation between the Smith and Celsius scales.
- Question : 98P - It is well-known that cold air feels much colder in windy weather than what the thermometer reading indicates because of the
- Question : 99P - Reconsider Problem 1
- Question : 100P - An air-conditioning system requires a 20-m-long section of 15-cm diameter duct work to be laid underwater. Determine the upward force the water will exert on the duct. Take the densities of air and water to be 1.3 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3, respectively.
- Question : 101P - Determine the upward force the water will exert on the duct. Take the densities of air and water to be 1.3 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3, respectively.
- Question : 102P - Reconsider Prob. 1
- Question : 103P - Determine the maximum amount of load, in kg, the balloon described in Prob. 1
- Question : 104P - The pressure in a steam boiler is given to be 92 kgf/cm2. Express this pressure in psi, kPa, atm, and bars.
- Question : 105P - The basic barometer can be used as an altitudemeasuring device in airplanes. The ground control reports a barometric reading of 753 mm Hg while the pilot
- Question : 106P - The lower half of a 10-m-high cylindrical container is filled with water (r 1000 kg/m3) and the upper half with oil that has a specific gravity of 0.85. Determine the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the cylinder. Answer: 90.7 kPa
- Question : 107P - A vertical, frictionless piston
- Question : 108P - A pressure cooker cooks a lot faster than an ordinary pan by maintaining a higher pressure and temperature inside. The lid of a pressure cooker is well sealed, and steam can escape only through an opening in the middle of the lid. A separate metal piece, the petcock, sits on top of this opening and prevents steam from escaping until the pressure force overcomes the weight of the petcock. The periodic escape of the steam in this manner prevents any potentially dangerous pressure buildup and keeps the pressure inside at a constant value. Determine the mass of the petcock of a pressure cooker whose operation pressure is 100 kPa gage and has an opening cross-sectional area of 4 mm2. Assume an atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa, and draw the free-body diagram of the petcock. Answer: 40.8 g
- Question : 109P - A glass tube is attached to a water pipe, as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 110P - The average atmospheric pressure on earth is approximated as a function of altitude by the relation Patm 101.325 (1 0.02256z)5.256, where Patm is the atmospheric pressure in kPa and z is the altitude in km with z 0 at sea level. Determine the approximate atmospheric pressures at Atlanta (z 306 m), Denver (z 1610 m), Mexico City (z 2309 m), and the top of Mount Everest (z 8848 m).
- Question : 111P - When measuring small pressure differences with a manometer, often one arm of the manometer is inclined to improve the accuracy of reading. (The pressure difference is still proportional to the vertical distance and not the actual length of the fluid along the tube.) The air pressure in a circular duct is to be measured using a manometer whose open arm is inclined 35
- Question : 112P - Consider a U-tube whose arms are open to the atmosphere. Now equal volumes of water and light oil (r 49.3 lbm/ft3) are poured from different arms. A person blows from the oil side of the U-tube until the contact surface of the two fluids moves to the bottom of the U-tube, and thus the liquid levels in the two arms are the same. If the fluid height in each arm is 30 in, determine the gage pressure the person exerts on the oil by blowing.
- Question : 113P - Intravenous infusions are usually driven by gravity by hanging the fluid bottle at sufficient height to counteract the blood pressure in the vein and to force the fluid into the body. The higher the bottle is raised, the higher the flow rate of the fluid will be. (a) If it is observed that the fluid and the blood pressures balance each other when the bottle is 1.2 m above the arm level, determine the gage pressure of the blood. (b) If the gage pressure of the fluid at the arm level needs to be 20 kPa for sufficient flow rate, determine how high the bottle must be placed. Take the density of the fluid to be 1020 kg/m3.
- Question : 114P - A gasoline line is connected to a pressure gage through a double-U manometer, as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 115P - Repeat Prob. 1
- Question : 116P - A water pipe is connected to a double-U manometer as shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 117P - It is well-known that the temperature of the atmosphere varies with altitude. In the troposphere, which extends to an altitude of 11 km, for example, the variation of temperature can be approximated by T T0 bz, where T0 is the temperature at sea level, which can be taken to be 288.15 K, and b 0.0065 K/m. The gravitational acceleration also changes with altitude as g(z) g0 /(1 z/6,370,320)2 where g0 9.807 m/s2 and z is the elevation from sea level in m. Obtain a relation for the variation of pressure in the troposphere (a) by ignoring and (b) by considering the variation of g with altitude.
- Question : 118P - The variation of pressure with density in a thick gas layer is given by P Crn, where C and n are constants. Noting that the pressure change across a differential fluid layer of thickness dz in the vertical z-direction is given as dP rg dz, obtain a relation for pressure as a function of elevation z. Take the pressure and density at z 0 to be P0 and r0, respectively
- Question : 119P - Pressure transducers are commonly used to measure pressure by generating analog signals usually in the range of 4 mA to 20 mA or 0 V-dc to 10 V-dc in response to applied pressure. The system whose schematic is shown in Fig. P1
- Question : 120P - Consider a fish swimming 5 m below the free surface of water. The increase in the pressure exerted on the fish when it dives to a depth of 45 m below the free surface is (a) 392 Pa (b) 9800 Pa (c) 50,000 Pa (d) 392,000 Pa (e) 441,000 Pa
- Question : 121P - The atmospheric pressures at the top and the bottom of a building are read by a barometer to be 96.0 and 98.0 kPa. If the density of air is 1.0 kg/m3, the height of the building is (a) 17 m (b) 20 m (c) 170 m (d) 204 m (e) 252 m
- Question : 122P - An apple loses 4.5 kJ of heat as it cools per
- Question : 123P - Consider a 2-m deep swimming pool. The pressure difference between the top and bottom of the pool is (a) 12.0 kPa (b) 19.6 kPa (c) 38.1 kPa (d) 50.8 kPa (e) 200 kPa
- Question : 124P - At sea level, the weight of 1 kg mass in SI units is 9.81 N. The weight of 1 lbm mass in English units is (a) 1 lbf (b) 9.81 lbf (c) 32.2 lbf (d) 0.1 lbf (e) 0.031 lbf
- Question : 125P - During a heating process, the temperature of an object rises by 20
- Question : 126P - Write an essay on different temperature measurement devices. Explain the operational principle of each device, its advantages and disadvantages, its cost, and its range of applicability. Which device would you recommend for use in the following cases: taking the temperatures of patients in a doctor
- Question : 127P - Write an essay on the various mass- and volumemeasurement devices used throughout history. Also, explain the development of the modern units for mass and volume.
- Question : 128P - Write an essay on the various mass- and volumemeasurement devices used throughout history. Also, explain the development of the modern units for mass and volume.
- Question : 129P - Density of Water as a Function of Temperature Experiment The density of water as a function of temperature is obtained with a sensitive cylindrical float constructed from brass tubing. The float is placed in a Thermos bottle filled with water at different temperatures. From 0 to 4

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