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- Question : 1P - Look around you and identify fi ve objects. Decide if they are composed of natural or synthetic materials.
- Question : 2P - Imagine that your job as a healthcare professional is to take a blood sample from a patient and store it in a small container in a refrigerator until it is picked up for analysis in the hospital lab. You might have to put on gloves and a mask, use a plastic syringe with a metal needle, store the sample in a test tube or vial, and place it in a cold refrigerator. Pick fi ve objects you might encounter during the process and decide if they are made of naturally occurring or synthetic materials.
- Question : 3P - Characterize each process as a physical change or a chemical change: (a) making ice cubes; (b) burning natural gas; (c) silver jewelry tarnishing; (d) a pile of snow melting; (e) baking bread.
- Question : 4P - Does the molecular art represent a chemical change or a physical change? Explain your choice.
- Question : 5P - Classify each item as a pure substance or a mixture: (a) blood; (b) ocean water; (c) a piece of wood; (d) a chunk of ice.
- Question : 6P - Classify each item as an element or a compound: (a) the gas inside a helium balloon; (b) table sugar; (c) the rust on an iron nail; (d) aspirin. All elements are listed alphabetically on the inside front cover
- Question : 7P - What term is used for each of the following units: (a) a million liters; (b) a thousandth of a second; (c) a hundredth of a gram; (d) a tenth of a liter?
- Question : 8P - What is the numerical value of each unit in terms of the base unit? (For example, 1
- Question : 9P - If a nanometer is one billionth of a meter (0.000 000 001 m), how many nanometers are there in one meter?
- Question : 10P - If a microgram is one millionth of a gram (0.000 001 g), how many micrograms are there in one gram?
- Question : 11P - If a centiliter is one hundredth of a liter (0.01 L), how many centiliters are there in one liter?
- Question : 12P - How many signifi cant fi gures does each number contain? a. 23.45 c. 230 e. 0.202 g. 1,245,006 b. 23.057 d. 231.0 f. 0.003 60 h. 1,200,000
- Question : 13P - How many signifi cant fi gures does each number contain? a. 10,040 c. 1,004.00 e. 1.0040 g. 0.001 004 b. 10,040. d. 1.004 f. 0.1004 h. 0.010 040 0
- Question : 14P - Indicate whether each zero in the following numbers is signifi cant. a. 0.003 04 b. 26,045 c. 1,000,034 d. 0.304 00
- Question : 15P - Round off each number in Sample Problem 1.2 to two signifi cant fi gures.
- Question : 16P - Carry out each calculation and give the answer using the proper number of signifi cant fi gures. a. 10.70
- Question : 17P - Carry out each calculation and give the answer using the proper number of signifi cant fi gures. a. 27.8 cm + 0.246 cm c. 54.6 mg
- Question : 18P - Lab results for a routine check-up showed an individual
- Question : 19P - Write each number in scientifi c notation. a. 93,200 c. 6,780,000 e. 4,520,000,000,000 b. 0.000 725 d. 0.000 030 f. 0.000 000 000 028
- Question : 20P - There are 6.02
- Question : 21P - Convert each number to its standard form. a. 6.5
- Question : 22P - Write two conversion factors for each pair of units. a. miles and kilometers c. grams and pounds b. meters and millimeters d. milligrams and micrograms
- Question : 23P - The distance between Honolulu, HI, and Los Angeles, CA, is 4,120 km. How many frequent fl yer miles will you earn by traveling between the two cities?
- Question : 24P - Convert 25 mL to
- Question : 25P - Carry out each of the following conversions. a. 25 L to dL b. 40.0 oz to g c. 32 in. to cm d. 10 cm to mm
- Question : 26P - Carry out each of the following conversions. a. 6,250 ft to km b. 3 cups to L c. 4.5 ft to cm
- Question : 27P - On a recent road trip, your average speed was 65 miles per hour. What was your average speed in (a) mi/s; (b) m/s?
- Question : 28P - If one teaspoon contains 5.0 mL, how many teaspoons of Children
- Question : 29P - A patient is prescribed 0.100 mg of a drug that is available in 25-
- Question : 30P - How many milliliters of Children
- Question : 31P - When the human body is exposed to extreme cold, hypothermia can result and the body
- Question : 32P - Convert each temperature to the requested temperature scale. a. 20
- Question : 33P - Calculate the mass in grams of 10.0 mL of diethyl ether, an anesthetic that has a density of 0.713 g/mL.
- Question : 34P - (a) Calculate the volume in milliliters of 100. g of coconut oil, which has a density of 0.92 g/mL. (b) How many liters does this correspond to?
- Question : 35P - Ten milliliters of either hexane (density = 0.65 g/mL) or chloroform (density = 1.49 g/mL) was added to a beaker that contains 10 mL of water, forming two layers with water on top. What liquid was added to the beaker?
- Question : 36P - (a) If the density of a liquid is 0.80 g/mL, what is its specifi c gravity? (b) If the specifi c gravity of a substance is 2.3, what is its density?
- Question : 37P - What is the difference between an element and a compound?
- Question : 38P - What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
- Question : 39P - Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of (a) volume (how they fi ll a container); (b) shape; (c) level of organization of the particles that comprise them; (d) how close the particles that comprise them lie.
- Question : 40P - How do physical properties and chemical properties differ?
- Question : 41P - Classify each process as a chemical or physical change. a. dissolving calcium chloride in water b. burning gasoline to power a car c. heating wax so that it melts
- Question : 42P - Classify each process as a chemical or physical change. a. the condensation of water on the outside of a cold glass b. mixing a teaspoon of instant coffee with hot water c. baking a cake
- Question : 43P - When a chunk of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) is placed out in the air, the solid gradually disappears and a gas is formed above the solid. Does the molecular art drawn below indicate that a chemical or physical change has occurred? Explain your choice.
- Question : 44P - The inexpensive preparation of nitrogen-containing fertilizers begins with mixing together two elements, hydrogen and nitrogen, at high temperature and pressure in the presence of a metal. Does the molecular art depicted below indicate that a chemical or physical change occurs under these conditions? Explain your choice.
- Question : 45P - What is the difference between an exact number and an inexact number? Give an example of each type of number.
- Question : 46P - What is the difference between an exact number and an inexact number? Give an example of each type of number.
- Question : 47P - Which quantity in each pair is larger? a. 5 mL or 5 dL c. 5 cm or 5 mm b. 10 mg or 10
- Question : 48P - Which quantity in each pair is larger? a. 10 km or 10 m c. 10 g or 10
- Question : 49P - How many signifi cant fi gures does each number contain? a. 16.00 c. 0.001 60 e. 1.06 g. 1.060
- Question : 50P - How many signifi cant fi gures does each number contain? a. 160. c. 0.000 16 e. 1,600. g. 1.600
- Question : 51P - Round each number to three signifi cant fi gures. a. 25,401 c. 0.001 265 982 e. 195.371 b. 1,248,486 d. 0.123 456 f. 196.814
- Question : 52P - Round each number in Problem 1.51 to four signifi cant fi gures.
- Question : 53P - Carry out each calculation and report the answer using the proper number of signifi cant fi gures. a. 53.6
- Question : 54P - Carry out each calculation and report the answer using the proper number of signifi cant fi gures. a. 49,682
- Question : 55P - Write each quantity in scientifi c notation. a. 1,234 g c. 5,244,000 L e. 44,000 km b. 0.000 016 2 m d. 0.005 62 g
- Question : 56P - Write each quantity in scientifi c notation. a. 0.001 25 m c. 54,235.6 m e. 4,440 s b. 8,100,000,000 lb d. 0.000 001 899 L
- Question : 57P - Convert each number to its standard form. a. 3.4
- Question : 58P - Convert each number to its standard form. a. 4.02
- Question : 59P - Which number in each pair is larger? a. 4.44
- Question : 60P - Rank the numbers in each group from smallest to largest. a. 5.06
- Question : 61P - Write the recommended daily intake of each nutrient in scientifi c notation. a. 0.000 400 g of folate c. 0.000 080 g of vitamin K b. 0.002 g of copper d. 3,400 mg of chloride
- Question : 62P - A blood vessel is 0.40
- Question : 63P - A picosecond is one trillionth of a second (0.000 000 000 001 s). (a) Write this number in scientifi c notation. (b) How many picoseconds are there in one second? Write this answer in scientifi c notation.
- Question : 64P - Red light has a wavelength of 683 nm. Convert this quantity to meters and write the answer in scientifi c notation.
- Question : 65P - Carry out each of the following conversions. a. 300 g to mg d. 300 g to oz b. 2 L to
- Question : 66P - Carry out each of the following conversions. a. 25
- Question : 67P - Carry out each of the following conversions. a. What is the mass in kilograms of an individual who weighs 234 lb? b. What is the height in centimeters of a child who is 50. in. tall? c. A patient required 3.0 pt of blood during surgery. How many liters does this correspond to? d. A patient had a body temperature of 37.7
- Question : 68P - Carry out each of the following conversions. a. What is the mass in pounds of an individual who weighs 53.2 kg? b. What is the height in inches of a child who is 90. cm tall? c. How many mL are contained in the 5.0 qt of blood in the human body? d. A patient had a body temperature of 103.5
- Question : 69P - (a) How many milliliters are contained in 1 qt of milk? (b) How many fl uid ounces are contained in 1 L of soda?
- Question : 70P - Which gasoline is less expensive: gas that sells for $3.00 per gallon or gas that sells for $0.89 per liter?
- Question : 71P - The average mass of a human liver is 1.5 kg. Convert this quantity to (a) grams; (b) pounds; (c) ounces.
- Question : 72P - The length of a femur (thigh bone) of a patient is 18.2 in. Convert this quantity to (a) meters; (b) centimeters.
- Question : 73P - Carry out each of the following temperature conversions. a. An over-the-counter pain reliever melts at 53
- Question : 74P - Methane, the main component of the natural gas used for cooking and heating homes, melts at
- Question : 75P - Which temperature in each pair is higher? a.
- Question : 76P - Rank the temperatures in each group from lowest to highest. a. 0
- Question : 77P - What is the difference between density and specifi c gravity?
- Question : 78P - If you have an equal mass of two different substances (A and B), but the density of A is twice the density of B, what can be said about the volumes of A and B?
- Question : 79P - If a urine sample has a mass of 122 g and a volume of 121 mL, what is its density in g/mL?
- Question : 80P - If a urine sample has a mass of 122 g and a volume of 121 mL, what is its density in g/mL?
- Question : 81P - Isooctane is a high-octane component of gasoline. If the density of isooctane is 0.692 g/mL, how much does 220 mL weigh?
- Question : 82P - A volume of saline solution weighed 25.6 g at 4
- Question : 83P - If milk has a density of 1.03 g/mL, what is the mass of 1 qt, reported in kilograms?
- Question : 84P - If gasoline has a density of 0.66 g/mL, how many kilograms does 1 gal weigh?
- Question : 85P - Which is the upper layer when each of the following liquids is added to water? a. heptane (density = 0.684 g/mL) b. olive oil (density = 0.92 g/mL) c. chloroform (density = 1.49 g/mL) d. carbon tetrachloride (density = 1.59 g/mL)
- Question : 86P - Which of the following solids fl oat on top of water and which sink? a. aluminum (density = 1.70 g/cc) b. lead (density = 11.34 g/cc) c. Styrofoam (density = 0.100 g/cc) d. maple wood (density = 0.74 g/cc)
- Question : 87P - (a) What is the specifi c gravity of mercury, the liquid used in thermometers, if it has a density of 13.6 g/mL? (b) What is the density of ethanol if it has a specifi c gravity of 0.789?
- Question : 88P - Why is specifi c gravity a unitless quantity?
- Question : 89P - What are the advantages of using the metric system of measurement over the English system of measurement?
- Question : 90P - When you convert pounds to grams, how do you decide which unit of the conversion factor is located in the numerator?
- Question : 91P - Rank the quantities in each group from smallest to largest. a. 100
- Question : 92P - What is the difference between mass and weight?
- Question : 93P - A lab test showed an individual
- Question : 94P - Hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Lab results indicated a patient had a hemoglobin concentration in the blood of 15.5 g/dL, which is in the normal range. (a) Convert the number of grams to milligrams and write the answer in scientifi c notation. (b) Convert the number of grams to micrograms and write the answer in scientifi c notation.
- Question : 95P - A woman was told to take a dose of 1.5 g of calcium daily. How many 500-mg tablets should she take?
- Question : 96P - The recommended daily calcium intake for a woman over 50 years of age is 1,200 mg. If one cup of milk has 306 mg of calcium, how many cups of milk provide this amount of calcium? (b) How many milliliters of milk does this correspond to?
- Question : 97P - A medium banana contains 451 mg of the nutrient potassium. How many bananas would you have to eat in one day to obtain the recommended daily intake of 3.5 g of potassium?
- Question : 98P - A single 1-oz serving of tortilla chips contains 250 mg of sodium. If an individual ate the entire 13-oz bag, how many grams of sodium would he ingest? If the recommended daily intake of sodium is 2.4 g, does this provide more or less than the recommended daily value, and by how much?
- Question : 99P - A bottle of liquid medication contains 300 mL and costs $10.00. (a) If the usual dose is 20. mL, how much does each dose cost? (b) If the usual dose is two tablespoons (1 tablespoon = 15 mL), how much does each dose cost?
- Question : 100P - The average nicotine content of a Camel cigarette is 1.93 mg. (a) Convert this quantity to both grams and micrograms. (b) Nicotine patches, which are used to help quit smoking, release nicotine into the body by absorption through the skin. The patches come with different amounts of nicotine. A smoker begins with the amount of nicotine that matches his typical daily intake. The maximum amount of nicotine in one brand of patch supplies a smoker with 21 mg of nicotine per day. If an individual smoked one pack of 20 Camel cigarettes each day, would a smoker get more or less nicotine per day using this patch?
- Question : 101P - A chemist synthesized 0.510 kg of aspirin in the lab. If the normal dose of aspirin is two 325-mg tablets, how many doses did she prepare?.
- Question : 102P - Maalox is the trade name for an antacid and antigas medication used for relief of heartburn, bloating, and acid indigestion. Each 5-mL portion of Maalox contains 400 mg of aluminum hydroxide, 400 mg of magnesium hydroxide, and 40 mg of simethicone. If the recommended dose is two teaspoons four times a day, how many grams of each substance would an individual take in a 24-hour period. (1 teaspoon = 5 mL.)
- Question : 103P - Children
- Question : 104P - A patient is prescribed 2.0 g of a medication to be taken four times a day. If the medicine is available in 500-mg tablets, how many tablets are needed in a 24-hour period?
- Question : 105P - Children
- Question : 106P - Often the specifi c amount of a drug to be administered must be calculated from a given dose in mg per kilogram of body weight. This assures that individuals who have very different body mass get the proper dose. If the proper dosage of a drug is 2 mg/kg of body weight, how many milligrams would a 110-lb individual need?
- Question : 107P - If the proper dose of a medication is 10
- Question : 108P - If a 180-lb patient is prescribed 20 mg of the cholesterollowering drug Lipitor daily, what dosage is the patient receiving in mg/kg of his body weight?

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