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Perform hand calculations to estimate the pressure drop in each element of the system. Assume two injectors are running simultaneously at a steady flow rate of 40 litres/hour from each injector and the pressure regulator is returning 130 litres/hour to the fuel tank. Calculate the pump pressure and nozzle diameter to deliver the fuel flow velocity at 20 m/s.

b) Develop a 1-D model using Flowmaster for the injection system under steady state conditions and compare the results with the previous hand calculations.

c) Discuss and assess the system operation and also provide recommendations for the following conditions:

i. The case when only one injector is working and the case when all injectors are working simultaneously.

ii. The injection pressure and flow rate if the pressure regulator has been by-passed.

iii. if the pressure regulator is stuck and no fuel is returned back to the tank.

iv. The injection pressure and flow rate if the fuel filter is partially blocked and as a result its pressure drop doubles.

d) By using Flow master software, simulate unsteady performance of the system for the case c) iii , from the moment the pressure regulator is stuck (time=0s). Assume one injector was working. Discuss and assess the unsteady operation of the system. Determine and plot the unsteady injection pressure and flow rate against time.

Make all the necessary assumptions and discuss the effect of your assumptions on the final results.

The following data has been collected for the fuel injection system. The students will choose the dimensions of the pipe connecting the fuel tank to the fuel filter and the position of the pressure regulator on the return pipe.

A single shaft gas turbine for a power generation application consists of an axial flow compressor with 11 stages to achieve a pressure ratio of 15.5 to 1,

a single can combustor,

and a turbine with 3 reaction stages.

The net electric power output from the plant is 11250 kW

and the exhaust gas flow is 47.5 kg/s.

The plant uses natural gas which consists 96% Methane and 4% Ethane by volume

and has a lower heating value of 48.12 MJ/kg.

Make all necessary assumptions in your analysis, and state and justify each of them.

Hence:

a) Perform the thermodynamics cycle analysis to estimate the temperatures at the inlet and exit of the turbine. Also estimate the isentropic efficiencies for the compressor and turbine and the overall plant efficiency.

b) Determine the gravimetric composition of the exhaust gases assuming an overall equivalence ratio of 0.6.

c) Estimate the adiabatic flame temperature for the above mixture.

d) Outline the thermodynamic effects of dissociation in the combustion process.

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